71. Heiti for the wolf, the bear, and the hart

It is correct to periphrase blood or carrion in terms of the beast which is called Strangler*, by calling them his Meat and Drink; it is not correct to express them in terms of other beasts. The Strangler is also called Wolf.

As Thjdlfr sang:

Enough guesting to the Ravener
Was given, when the Son of Sigurdr
Came from the North, the Wolf
To lure from the wood to the wound.

Here he is called Ravener also.

Greedy One, as Egill sang:

The Greedy One gashed
Grisly wounds, when plashed
The red Point-Creek
On the raven's beak.

Witch-Beast, as Einarr sang:

The Gtha, cold with venom,
With hot Wound-Gush was reddened;
The Witch-Beast's warm drink, mingled
With the water, in the sea poured.

She-Wolf, as Arnrr sang:

The She-Wolf's evil Kindred
Swallowed the corpse, harm-swollen,
When the green sea was turnd
To red, with gore commingled.

Strangler, as Illugi sang:

There was happiness for the Strangler
When my lord pursued hosts full many;
With the sword the Necklet-Minisher
Pierced the swart Snake of the Forest.

Thus sang Hallr:

He sated the Heath-Beasts' Hunger:
The hoar howler in wounds gladdened;
The king reddened the Wild One's mouth-hairs,--
The Wolf went to drink of the wound.

And again, as Thrdr sang:

In blood Gjlp's Stud-Horse waded,
The dusty pack got fullness
Of the Greedy One's Wheat; the howler
Enjoyed the Ravener's Gore-Drink.

The bear is called Wide-Stepper, Cub, Winterling, Ourse, Gib-Cat, Tusker, Youngling, Roarer, Jlfudr,1 Wilful-Sharp, She-Bear, Horse-Chaser,
Scratcher, Hungry One, Blmr,1 Bustler. The hart is called Mdrdnir,2 [Dalarr, Dalr,]3 [Dinn, Dvalinn, Duneyrr, Durathrr],4

72. Heiti for the horse

These are the names of horses enumerated in the Rhymes of Thorgrmr:5

Hrafn6 and Sleipnir,
The famous horses;
Valr7 and Lttfeti;
Tjaldari8 a was there too;
Gulltopr and Goti;9
I heard Sti10 told of;
Mr11 and Lungr12 with Marr.13

Vigg14 and Stfr15
Were with Skvadr;16
Blakkr17 could well bear Thegn;
Silfrtoppr and Sinir;18
I heard Fkr19 spoke of;
Gullfaxi and Jr20 with the Gods were.

Bldughfi21 hight a horse
That they said beareth
The strength-eminent Atridi;
Gsl22 and Falhfnir;23
Glr24 and Skeidbrimir;25
Mention, too, was made of Gyllir.26

These also are recorded in Klfsvsa:

Dagr rode Drsull,27
And Dvalinn rode Mdnir;28
Hjlmthr, Hfeti;29
Haki rode Fkr;
The Slayer of Beli
Rode Bldughfi,
And Skvadr was ridden
By the Ruler of Haddings.
Vsteinn rode Valr,
And Vifill rode Stfr;
Meinthjfr rode Mr,
And Morginn on Vakr;30
li rode Hrafn,
They who rode onto the ice:
But another, southward,
Under Adils,
A gray one, wandered,
Wounded with the spear.

Bjrn rode Blakkr,
And Bjrr rode Kertr;31
Atli rode Glaumr,32
And Adils on Slngvir;33
Hgni on Hlvir,34
And Haraldr on Flkvir;35
Gunnarr rode Goti,36
And Sigurdr, Grani.37

Arvakr38 and Alsvidr39 draw the Sun, as is written before; Hrmfaxi40 or Fjrsvartnir41 draw the Night; Skinfaxi42 and Gladr43 are the Day's horses.

73. Oxen, serpents, sheep, swine

"These names of oxen are in Thorgrmr's Rhymes:

Of all oxen the names Have I accurately learned,-- Of these: Raudr44 and Hœfir,45 Rekinn46 and Hrr,47 Himinhrjdr48 and Apli,49 Arfr50 and Arfuni.51

These are names of serpents: Dragon, Ffnir, Mighty Monster, Adder, Ndhggr, Lindworm, She-Adder, [Ginn, Minn, Grafvitnir, Grbakr, fnir, Svfnir,]52 Hooded One.

Neat-Cattle: Cow, calf, oxen, heifer, yearling, steer, bull.

Sheep: Ram, buck, ewe, lamb, wether.

Swine: Sow, she-pig, boar, hog, suckling.

74. Heiti of the air and the winds

What are the names of the air and of the winds? Air is called Yawning Void and Middle World, Bird-Abode, Wind-Abode. Wind is called Storm, Breeze, Gale, Tempest, Gust, Blowing. Thus does one read in Alsvinnsml:

Wind 't is called among menfolk,
And Waverer with the gods,--
Neigher the great powers name it;
Shrieker the giants,
And Shouter elves call it;
In Hel Clamorer 't is called.

The Wind is also called Blast.

75. Heiti of the raven and the eagle

Two are those birds which there is no need to periphrase otherwise than by calling blood and corpses their Drink and Meat: these are the raven and the eagle. All other male birds may be periphrased in metaphors of blood

or corpses; and then their names are terms of the eagle or the raven. As Thjdlfr sang:

The Prince with Eagle's Barley
Doth feed the bloody moor-fowl:
The Hrd-King bears the sickle
Of Odin to the gory Swan's crop;
The Sater of the Vulture
Of the Eagle's Sea of corpses
Stakes each shoal to the southward
Which he wards, with the spear-point.

These are names of the raven: Crow, [Huginn, Muninn,]53 Bold of Mood, Yearly Flier, Year-Teller, Flesh-Boder.

Thus sang Einarr Tinkling-Scale:

With flesh the Host-Convoker
Filled the feathered ravens:
The raven, when spears were screaming,
With the she-wolf's prey was sated.

Thus sang Einarr Sklason:

He who gluts the Gull of Hatred,
Our precious lord, could govern
The sword; the hurtful raven
Of Huginn's corpse-load eateth.

And as he sang further:

But the King's heart swelleth,
His spirit flushed with battle,
Where heroes shrink; dark Muninn
Drinks blood from out the wounds.

As Vga-Glmr sang:

When stood the shielded Maidens
Of the gory sword, strife-eager,
On the isle; the Bold of Mood then
Received the meat of wound-blood.

As Skli Thorsteinsson sang:

Not the hindmost in the hundred
Might Hlkk of horns have seen me,
Where to the Yearly Flier
I fed the wounds full grievous.

The erne is called Eagle, Old One, Storm-Shearer, Inciter, Soarer, Wound-Shearer, Cock. As Einarr sang:

With blood the lips he reddened
Of the black steed of Jrnsaxa;
With steel Erne's meat was furnished:
The Eagle slit the Wolf's Bait.

As Ottarr sang:

The Erne swills corpse-drink,
The She-wolf is sated,
The Eagle there feedeth,
Oft the wolf his fangs reddens.

As Thjdlfr sang:

The Spoiler of the Lady
Swiftly flew with tumult
To meet the high God-Rulers,
Long hence, in Old One's plumage.54

And as stands here:

With skill will I rehearse
Of the Storm-Shearer my verse.

And again as Skli sang:

Early and late with sobbing
I wake, where well is sated
The hawk of the Cock's blood-ocean:
Then the bard heareth good tidings.

76. Heiti of the sea

What are the names of the Sea? It is called Ocean, Main, Wintry, Lee, Deep, Way, Weir, Salt, Lake, Furtherer. As Arnrr sang, and as we have written above:

Let men hear how the Earls' King,
Hardy of mind, the Sea sought;
The overwhelming Ruler
Failed not to resist the Main.55

Here it is named Sea, and Main also.

"Ocean, as Hornklofi sang:

When the man-scathing Meeter
Of the Mansion of the Rock-Reefs
Thrust the Forecastle-Adder
And the skiff out on the Ocean.

In the following verse it is called Lake as well: thus sang Einarr:

The Lake doth bathe the vessel,
Where the sea 'gainst each side beateth,
And the bright wind-vanes rattle;
The surf washes the Flood-Steeds.

Here it is called Flood also. Thus sang Refr, as was said before:

Wintry One's56 wet-cold Spae-Wife
Wiles the Bear of Twisted Cables
Oft into gir's wide jaws,
Where the angry billow breaketh.57

Deep, as Hallvardr sang:

The Sword-Shaker bids be pointed
The prow of the hardy ship-steed
Westward in the girdle
Of all lands, the Watery Deep.

Way, as here:

On our course from land we glided;
On the Way to the coast of Finland:
I see from the Ship's Road, eastward,
The fells with radiance gleaming.

Weir, as Egill sang:

I sailed o'er the Weir
To the West: I bear
Odin's Heart-Sea.
So it stands with me.

Ocean, as Einarr sang:

Many a day the cold Ocean
Washes the swarthy deck-planks
'Neath the gracious Prince; and Snow-Storm
Furrows Mona's Girdle.

Salt, as Arnrr sang:

The hardy King the Salt plowed
From the east with hull ice-laden:
Brown tempests tossed the Lessener
Of Surf-Gold toward Sigtn.

Furtherer, as Blverkr sang:

Thou didst summon from fair Norway
A levy the next season,
With Din-Surf's ships the Furtherer
Didst shear; o'er decks the sea poured.
Here the sea is called Din-Surf also.

Wide One, as Refr sang:

To its breast the Stay's steed taketh
The Home of Planks, beak-furrowed,
And tosses the Wide One over
The hard side; the wood suffers.

Dusky One, as Njll of the Burning sang:

We sixteen pumped, my Lady,
In four oar-rooms, but the surge waxed:
The Dusky One beat over
The hull of the driven sea-ship.

These are other names for the Sea, such as it is proper to use in periphrasing ships or gold.

"Rn, it is said, was gir's wife, even as is written here:

To the sky shot up the Deep's Gledes,
With fearful might the sea surged:
Methinks our stems the clouds cut,--
Rn's Road to the moon soared upward.

The daughters of gir and Rn are nine, and their names are recorded before: Himinglva,58 Dfa,59 Bldughadda,60 Hefring,61 Udr,62 Hrnn,63 Bylgja,64 Drfn,65 Klga.66 Einarr Sklason recorded the names of six of them in this stanza, beginning:

Himinglva sternly stirreth,
And fiercely, the sea's wailing.

Welling Wave,67 as Valgardr sang:

Foam rested in the Sea's bed:
Swollen with wind, the deep played,
And the Welling Waves were washing
The awful heads of the war-ships.

Billow, as Ottarr the Swarthy sang:

Ye shear with shaven rudder Billows moisty-deep; the broad sheet, Which girls spun, on the mast-head With the Roller's Reindeer sported.

Foam-Fleck, as Ormr sang:

The hawk-like, heedful Lady
Has every virtue: Lofn
Of the Foam-Fleck's flame-gold, faithful
As a friend, all faults renounceth.

Wave-Borne, as Thorleikr the Fair sang:

The sea walls, and the Wave-Borne
Bears bright froth o'er the red wood,
Where gapes the Roller's Brown Ox,
With mouth gold-ornamented.

Shoal, as Einarr sang:

Nor met the Forward-Minded,
Where the fierce sea on our friends falls;
I think the Shoal becalmed not
The Ship, Wood of the Waters.

Fullness, as Refr sang:

Downward the Fells of Fullness
Fall on the Bear of Tackle:
Now forward Winterling, stirreth,
The ship, on Glammi's sea-path.

Comber,68 as here:

The Comber fell headlong o'er me;
The Main called me home unto it:
I accepted not the Sea's bidding.

Breaker, as ttarr sang:

In burst the ship-sides thin;
Rushed the Breaker downward; flushed
Stood the wind, bane of the wood;
Men endured wild tempest then.

Wave, as Bragi sang:

The Giver of the Wave's Coals,
Who cut Thor's slender tackle,
The Line of the Land of Sea-Mews,
Loved not to fight the wroth sea.

Sound, as Einarr sang:

I sheared the Sound
From Hrund south-bound;
My hand was gold-wound
When the Giver I found.

Fjord, as Einarr sang:

Next I see a serpent
Carved well on the splendid ale-horn:
Let the Fjord-Fire's Dispenser
Learn how for that I pay him.

Wetness, as Marks sang:

I'll not lampoon the Chatterer,
Lord of the fearful sword-blade,
Who squanders the Sun of Wetness:
Ill is he who spoileth verses.

77. Heiti of fire

What are the names of fire? Even as is written here:

Not seldom does the fire blaze
Which Magns sets: the stalwart
Ruler burns habitations:
Houses blow reek before him.

Glow, as Valgardr sang:

Fierce Glow, with red-hot embers,
Swiftly from the soot flared,
Straight o'er the tottering dwellings
Stood up the dense smoke-columns.

Bale, as here:

Haki was burned on Bale,
Where the sea's broad wake weltered.

Gledes, as Grani sang:

I think the Gledes diminished . . .
Glammi's tracks; thus the king kindled.

Embers, as Atli sang:

With blood the axe is reddened,
Embers wax, burn many houses,
Halls stand aglow; now rages
The Gem; good men are falling.

Here fire is called Gem also.

Vapor, as here:

Half-built, by the Nid's side
Burn the All-Ruler's dwellings;
I think fire razed the hall's pride:
Vapor shot rime on the people.

Hot Ashes, as Arnrr sang:

The Isle-Danes' wrathful Harmer
With the Raumar spared not hard counsel:
Hot Ashes made them calmer;
The Heinir's threatening words hushed.

Flames, as Einarr sang:

Flame soon was alight,
And swiftly took flight
All Hsing's host:
The fight they lost.

Flare, as Valgardr sang:

The sturdy king's bright Flare soared
Above the castle's bulwark;
The vikings burst in grimly:
Grief on the maid descended.

Lowe, as Haldrr sang:

There did ye share their jewels,
While o'er the host the Shield's Lowe,
The sword, shrieked fiercely: never
Wert thou spoiled of conquest.

78. Heiti of times

These are time-names: Cycle, Days of Yore, Generation, Lang-Syne, Year, Season, Winter, Summer, Spring, Autumn, Month, Week, Day, Night, Morning, Eve, Twilight, Early, Soon, Late, Betimes, Day before Yesterday, Yester Eve, Yesterday, To-morrow, Hour, Moment. These are more names of Night in Alsvinnsml:

Night 't is called among men,
And among the gods, Mist-Time;
Hooded Hour the Holy Powers know it;
Sorrowless the giants,
And elves name it Sleep-joy;
The dwarves call it Dream-Weaver.

["It is autumn from the equinox till the time when the sun sets three hours and a half after noon; then winter endures till the equinox; then it is spring till the moving-days;69 then summer till the equinox. The month next before winter is called Harvest-Month; the first in winter is the Month of Cattle-Slaughter; then Freezing Month, then Rain-Month, then the Month of Winter's Wane, then Gi;70 then Single Month, then Cuckoo-Month and Seed-Time, then Egg-time and Lamb-Weaning-Time; then come Sun-Month and Pasture Month, then Haying-Season; then Reaping Month.]71

79. Heiti of kings

"What are the simple terms for men? Each, in himself, is Man; the first and highest name by which man is called is Emperor; next to that, King; the next thereto, Earl: these three men possess in common all the following titles: All-Ruler, as this song showeth:

I know all All-Rulers
East and south, o'er the Ships' seat
Sveinn's son in proof is better
Than any other War-Prince.

Here he is called War-Prince also; for this reason he is called All-Ruler, that he is sole Ruler of all his realm.

Host-Arrayer, as Gizurr sang:

The Host-Arrayer feedeth
The wolf and the raven in folk-mote;
lfr gladdens, in Skgul's sharp showers
Of battle, the geese of Odin.

"A King is called Host-Arrayer because he divides his war-host into companies.

Leader, as Ottarr the Swarthy sang:

The Leader taketh
Odin's loved Wife,
The lordless land;
His a warrior's life.

Lord or Lording, as Arnrr sang:

The Lord of Hjaltland, highest
Of heroes, gained the victory
In every thunderous sword-clash:
The bard will extol his glory.

An earl is called Host-Duke, and a king also is so termed, forasmuch as he leads his host to battle. Thus sang Thjdlfr:

He who put to shame the Host-Duke
Thrust out the eyes of prisoners,--
He who speeds the sacrifices;
In song I chant his praises.

Signor, or Seor, as Sigvatr sang:

O Norway's gracious Signor,
Grant the wretched, as the happy,
May now enjoy thy wise laws;
Give greatly, hold thy word!

Munificent One, as Marks sang:

The Munificent Prince brought fire's destruction
O'er the base people; to the pirates
Death was fated: Thief-Compeller,
South at Jm highest flame-glow kindle!

Illustrious One, as Hallvardr sang:

No Illustrious One nearer
Under Earth's Hazel liveth
Than thou, O Monks' Upholder:
The Gold-Minisher Danes protecteth.

Land-Driver, as Thjdlfr sang:

The guileless Land-Driver sprinkles
Kraki's gleaming barley,
as was written before;72
he is called so because he drives his host
about the lands of other kings,
or drives a host out of his own land.

80. Of Halfdan the Old and the royal line

There was a king named Hlfdan the Old, who was most famous of all kings. He made a great sacrificial feast at mid-winter, and sacrificed to this end, that he might live three hundred years in his kingdom; but he received these answers: he should not live more than the full life of a man, but for three hundred years there should be no woman and no man in his line who was not of great repute. He was a great warrior, and went on forays far and wide in the Eastern Regions:73 there he slew in single combat the king who was called Sigtryggr. Then he took in marriage that woman named Alvig the Wise, daughter of King Eymundr of Hlmgardr:74 they had eighteen sons, nine born at one birth. These were their names: the first, Thengill,75 who was called Manna-Thengill;75 the second, [Rsir; the third, Gramr; the fourth, Gylfi; the fifth, Hilmir; the sixth, Jfurr; the seventh, Tyggi; the eighth, Skyli or Skli; the ninth, Harri or Herra.]76 These nine brothers became so famous in foraying that, in all records since, their names are used as titles of rank, even as the name of King or that of Earl. They had no children, and all fell in battle. Thus sang Ottarr the Swarthy:

In his youth stalwart Thengill
Was swift and staunch in battle:
I pray his line endureth;
O'er all men I esteem him.

Thus sang Markus:

The Rsir let the Rhine's Sun shimmer
From the reddened Skull's ship on the Sea-Fells.

Thus sang Egill:

The Gramr the hood hath lifted
From the hair-fenced brows of the Singer.

Thus sang Eyvindr:

He played with the land-folk
Who should have defended;

Gylfi the gladsome
Stood 'neath the gold helmet.

Thus sang Glmr Geirason:

Hilmir beneath the helmet
Reddened the sword hone-hollowed.77

Thus sang ttarr the Swarthy:

Let Jfurr hear the beginning
Of his laud: all the king's praises
Shall be maintained, and justly
Let him mark my praise-song's measures.

As Stfr sang:

The glory-ardent Tyggi
South before Niz with two hands
Beat down the band of heroes:
Glad beneath their shields the host went.

Thus sang Hallfredr:

From Skyli I am parted:
This age of swords hath caused it.
'T is greatest of all self-mockings
To hope that the king's guard cometh.

Thus sang Marks:

I bid the hawklike Danish Harri
Hark to my cunning web of praises.

"Hlfdan and his wife had nine other sons also; these were Hildir, from whom the Hildings are come; Nefir, from whom the Niflungs sprang; Audi, from whom the dlungs are come; Yngvi, from whom the Ynglings are descended; Dagr, from whom come the Dglings; Bragi, from whom the Bragnings are sprung (that is the race of Hlfdan the Munificent); Budli, from whom the Budlungs are come (from the house of the Budlungs Atli and Brynhildr descended); the eighth was Lofdi, who was a great war-king (that host who were called Lofdar followed him; his kindred are called Lofdungs, whence sprang Eylimi, Sigurdr Ffnisbani's mother's sire); the ninth, Sigarr, whence come the Siklings: that is the house of Siggeirr, who was son-in-law of Vlsungr,--and the house of Sigarr, who hanged Hagbardr. From the race of Hildings sprang Haraldr the Red-Bearded, mother's father of Hlfdan the Swarthy. Of the Niflung's house was Gjki; of the house of dlings, Kjrr; of the house of the Ylfings was Eirkr the Wise in Speech. These also are illustrious royal houses: from Yngvi, the Ynglings are descended; from Skjldr in Denmark, the Skjldungs are come; from Vlsungr in the land of Franks, those who are called Vlsungs. One war-king was named Skelfir; and his house is called the House of Skilfings: his kindred is in the Eastern Region.

"These houses which were named but now have been used in skaldship for titles of rank. Even as Einarr sang:

I learned that the Hildings sallied
To hold the Spear-Assembly
On the Gray Isle; the broad shields,
Green lindens, burst in sunder.

As Grant sang:

The Dgling to eagle's kindred
For drink gave Danish blood.

As Gamli Gnvadar-Skald sang:

Not long since, the young dling
With ship's deck and with sword-blade
Joined battle, waging fiercely
Of points the bitter tempest.

As Jrunn sang:

The Bragning bade the weapons
Be dyed in blood of vile folk;
The people endured his anger:
Houses bowed before red embers.

Thus sang Einarr:

The Budlung's blade sheared,
Blood on darts was smeared;
The storm-cloud of Hildr
At Whitby spilled.

Thus sang Arnorr:

The Kin of Siklings inureth
To the waves the ships sea-tossing;
With blood he dyes the warships
Within: 't is the weal of ravens.

As Thjdlfr sang:

Thus the doughty Sikling ended
His life; in dire straits were we:
The glorious Lofdung waited
Bravely surcease of living.

The folk who were called Lofdar followed King Lofdi.

As Arnrr sang:

Chief, another Skjldung higher
Than thou shall ne'er be born 'neath sun's light.

Vlsung, as Thorkell Hamar-Skald sang:

The Kin of Vlsungs
Gave counsel to send me
The gold-decked weapon
O'er the cool waters.

Yngling, as Ottarr the Swarthy sang:

In the East no mighty Yngling
To earth fell, ere o'ertook thee
He who subjected to him
The Sea-isles from the westward.

Yngvi: that too is a king's title, as Marks sang:

The age shall hear the praise of Eirkr:
None in the world a prince hath known of
Lordlier; thou holdest, Yngvi,
The Seat of Kings with long-kept glory.

Skilfing, as Valgardr sang:

The Skilfing kept a great host
Southward in the broad lands,
Where the swift ships shivered:
Sicily soon was desolated.

Signor, as Sigvatr sang:

O Norway's gracious Signor,
Let the poor enjoy; give greatly.78

[* Vargr; cf. A-S wearg, Ger. -wrgen

1. Meaning?

2. Angry-minded?

3. Meaning?

4. These are the names of the harts that feed on the leaves of the Ash Yggdrasill. See Gylfag., ch. xvi.

5. For meanings not given in footnotes, see Gylfag., ch. xv, and Sklds., ch. xvii.

6. Raven.

7. Hawk.

8. Racer? (Cl.-Vig, p. 635).

9. ?

10. Soot-Colored.

11. Dark-Gray.

12. ?

13. a Steed.

14. Carrier.

15. Stump.

16. Hoof-Tosser.

17. Black.

18. Sinewy.

19. Jade.

20. Horse, Steed.

21. Bloody-Hoof.

22. Hostage.

23. Hollow-Hoof.

24. Shining.

25. Swift-Runner.

26. Golden.

27. Roamer.

28. Spirited.

29. High-Heels.

30. Watchful, Nimble, Ambling, or perhaps Hawk.

31. Related to Kerti = a candle?

32. Tumult.

33. Slinger.

34. Horse; etymology?

35. ?

36. Goth.

37. Shining-Lip? (Jnsson).

38. Early-Wake.

39. All-Swift.

40. Frosty-Mane.

41. Swart-Life.

42. Shining-Mane.

43. Bright, or Glad.

44. Red.

45. Meet.

46. Driven.

47. Gentle.

48. Heaven-Bellowing, or perhaps Heaven-Destroyer.

49. Calf.

50. Bull; properly = cattle, pecus, fee; hence, inheritance.

51. Heir; cf. with 3.

52. For these names and their meanings, see Gylfag., ch. xvi.

53. For the meaning of these names (which are those of Odin's Ravens), see Gylfag., ch. xxxviii.

54. See Stanza 30 Kennings for Iunn.

55. See Stanza 66 Kennings for kings and chieftains.

56. Gymir. See Gering, Die Edda, p. 53, note 2.

57. See Stanza 33 Kennings for the sea.

58. That through which one can see the heaven (Jnsson).

59. The Pitching One (Jnsson).

60. Bloody-Hair.

61. Riser.

62. Frothing Wave.

63. Welling Wave.

64. Billow.

65. Foam-Fleck.

66. Poetical term for Wave. "The Cool One" (Jnsson).

67. In the following stanzas, for the sake of consistency, I have been obliged to translate the names, since they are employed in the stanzas as common nouns, {footnote p. 220} rather than as proper names. It is beyond my ability to translate Himinglva briefly.

68. So Cl.-Vig. Literally, the word means ominous, foreboder.

69. In May.

70. I cannot find the meaning of this word.

71. "This passage, which U lacks, is clearly a later addition." Jnsson, Copenhagen ed. (1900), p. 138, footnote.

72. See Stanza 54 Of Hrlfr Kraki and King Ails.

73. That is, in the lands bordering the Baltic.

74. Russia.

75. This word means Prince or King; Manna-Thengill = Prince of Men.

76. All of these words are poetic names for a Prince or King.

77. See Stanza 66 Kennings for kings and chieftains.

78. Stanza 75 Heiti of the raven and the eagle.]


71. lfs heiti, bjarnar ok hjartar.

Vargr heitir dr. at er rtt at kenna vi bl ea hr, sv at kalla ver hans ea drykk. Eigi er rtt at kenna sv vi fleiri dr. Vargr heitir ok lfr, sem jlfr kva:

252. Gera var gisting byrju
gng, en ulf r skgi
sonr sr at spenja
Sigorar kom noran.

Hr er hann ok geri kallar. Freki, sem Egill kva:

253. er oddbreki,
sleit und freki,
gni hrafni

Vitnir, sem Einarr kva:

254. Elfr var unda gjalfri
eitrkld roin heitu.
Vitnis fell me vatni
varmt lr men Karmtar.

Ylgr, sem Arnrr kva:

255. Svalg ttbogi ylgjar
gr, en var bli
grir grnn at rauum,
grandauknum n, blandinn.

Vargr, sem Illugi kva:

256. Vargs var munr at, er margan,
menskerir stakk sveri
myrkaurria markar,
minn drttinn rak fltta.

etta er enn vargs heiti, sem Hallr kva:

257. Heiingja sleit hungri,
hrr gylir naut sra,
granar rau gramr fenri,
gekk ulfr ben drekka.

Ok enn sem rr kva:

258. , en rnu ni
ms sveit freka hveiti,
gera lra naut gylir,
Gjalpar st bli.

Bjrn heitir fetvnir, hnn, vetrlii, bersi,
fress, ugtanni, ifjungr, glmr, jlfur, vilskarpr,
bera, jrekr, riti, frekr, blmr, ysjungr.
Hjrtr heitir mtronir, dalarr, dalr, Dinn,
Dvalinn, Duneyrr, Durarr.

72. Hestaheiti.

essi eru hesta heiti tali orgrmsulu:

259. Hrafn ok Sleipnir,
hestar gtir,
Valr ok Lttfeti,
var ar Tjaldari,
Gulltoppr ok Goti,
getit heyrak Sta,
Mr ok Lungr me Mari.

260. Vigg ok Stfr
var me Skvai.
egn kntti Blakkr bera,
Silfrtoppr ok Sinir,
sv heyrak Fks of getit,
Gullfaxi ok Jr me goum.

261. Blughfi ht hestr,
er bera kvu
flgan Atria,
Gsl ok Falhfnir,
Glr ok Skeibrimir,
ar var ok Gyllis getit.

essir eru enn talir Klfsvsu:

262. Dagr rei Drsli,
en Dvalinn Mni,
Hjalmr Hfeta,
en Haki Fki,
rei bani Belja
en Skvai
skati Haddingja.

263. Vsteinn Vali,
en Vfill Stfi,
Meinjfr Mi,
en Morginn Vakri,
li Hrafni,
er til ss riu,
en annarr austr
und Ailsi
grr hvarfai,
geiri undar.

264. Bjrn rei Blakki,
en Bjrr Kerti,
Atli Glaumi,
en Ails Slngvi,
Hgni Hlkvi,
en Haraldr Flkvi,
Gunnarr Gota,
en Grana Sigur.

rvakr ok Alsvir draga slina, sem fyrr er ritat. Hrmfaxi ea Fjrsvartnir draga nttina. Skinfaxi ea Glar fylgja deginum.

73. xn, ormar, sauir, svn.

essi xnaheiti eru orgrmsulu:

265. Gamalla xna nfn
hefi ek grla fregit
eira Raus ok Hfis,
Rekinn ok Hrr,
Himinhrjr ok Apli,
Arfr ok Arfuni.

essi eru orma heiti: dreki, Ffnir,
Jrmungandr, nar, Nhggr, linnr,
nara, Ginn, Minn, Grafvitnir,
Grbakr, fnir, Svfnir, grmr.
Naut: kr, klfr, yxni, kvga,
vetrungr, griungr, boli.

Saur: hrtr, bekri, r, lamb, ver.
Svn: sr, gylta, runi, gltr, grss.

74. Heiti lofts ok vera.

Hver eru heiti lofts ok veranna? Loft heitir ginnungagap ok mealheimr, foglheimr, verheimr. Ver heitir hregg, byrr, glygg, hret, gjsta, vindr. Sv segir Alsvinnsmlum:

266. Vindr heitir me mnnum,
en vnsur me goum,
kalla gneggju ginnregin,
pi jtnar,
en alfar gnfara,
heitir helju hlmmur.
Ver heitir ok gustr.

75. Hrafnsheiti ok arnar.

Tveir eru fuglar eir, er eigi arf at kenna annan veg en kalla bl ea hr drykk eira ea ver. at er hrafn ok rn. Alla ara fugla karlkennda m kenna vi bl ea hr, ok er at nafn rn ea hrafn, sem jlfr kva:

267. Blorra ltr barri
bragningr ara fagna.
Gauts berr sig sveita
svans r konungr Hra.
Geirs oddum ltr greddir
grunn hvert stika sunnar
hir, at er hann skal vara,
hrgamms ara svar.

essi eru nfn hrafns: krkr, Huginn, Muninn, borginmi, rflognir, rtali, holdboi. Sv kva Einarr sklaglamm:

268. Fjallvnum gaf fylli,
fullr var, en spjr gullu,
herstefnandi hrfnum,
hrafn ylgjar tafni.

Sv kva Einarr Sklason:

269. Dolgskra kn drum
drr magnandi stra,
Hugins fermu bregr harmi
harmr, blikslar garmi.

Ok enn sem hann kva:

270. En vi hjaldr, ar er hlar,
hugrtit svellr, lta,
Muninn drekkr bl r benjum
blsvartr, konungs hjarta.

Sem kva Vga-Glmr:

271. er dynfsir dsar
dreyra mens eyri,
br fekk borginmi
bls, skjaldair stum.

Sem Skli kva orsteinsson:

272. Myndit efst, ar er undir
rflogni gaf ek srar,
Hlkk hundras flokki
Hvtinga mik lta.

rn heitir sv: ari, gemlir, hreggskornir, eggir, ginnarr, undskornir, gallpnir. Sem Einarr kva:

273. Smleitum rau sveita,
sleit rn gera beitu,
fekksk arnar matr jrnum,
Jrnsxu grn faxa.

Sem ttarr kva:

274. rn drekkr, undarn
ylgr fr, af hrum sylg,
oft rr ulfr kft,
ari getr ver ar.

Sem jlfr kva:

275. Segjndum fl sagna
sntar ulfr at mti
gemlis ham gmlum
glamma fyr skmmu.

Ok sem hr er:

276. Hreggskornis vil ek handa
hleitan mj vanda.

Ok enn sem Skli kva:

277. Vaki ek at er val heltk ekka
vis r ok san,
greppr hlir gu,
gallpnis vel, spjalli.

76. Svarheiti.

Hver eru svar heiti? Hann heitir: marr, gir, gymir, hlr, haf, lei, ver, salt, lgr, grir. Sem Arnrr kva ok fyrr var ritat:

278. Nemi drtt, hv s stti
snarlyndr konungr jarla.
Eigi raut vi gi
vginn gram bgja.

Hr er nefndr sr ok sv gir. Marr, sem Hornklofi kva:

279. er t mar mtir
mannskr lagar tanna
rsinar til rausnar
rak vbrautar Nkkva.

Lgr er ok hr nefndr. Sv kva Einarr:

280. Lgr vr flaust, en fagrir,
fls vaskar brim stum,
ar er sr hli hvra
hlymr, vervitar glymja.

Hr er ok fl kallat. Sv kva Refr, sem fyrr var ritat:

281. Frir Bjrn, ar er bra
brestr, undinna festa
oft gis kjafta
rsvl Gymis vlva.

Haf, sem Halvarr kva:

282. Vestr lzt haf, hristir,
harviggs, sikulgjarar,
umbands allra landa,
ss, framstafni vsat.

Lei, sem hr er:

283. Erum lei fr li
linir Finnum skrinu.
Austr s ek fjll af flausta
ferli geisla merlu.

Ver, sem Egill kva:

284. Vestr fr ek of ver,
en ek Viris ber
munstrandar mar,
sv er mitt of far.

Marr, sem Einarr kva:

285. Kaldr vr marr und mildum
margt dgr viu svarta,
grefr lsnin, jfri,
almsorg Manar jalma.

Salt, sem Arnrr kva:

286. Salt skar hfi hltum
hraustr jkngr austan
Bru brimlogs rri
brn ver at Sigtnum.

Grir, sem Blverkr kva:

287. Leiangr bjtt af li,
lgr gekk of skip, fgru,
gjalfrstum reist gri
glstum, r it nsta.

Hr er ok gjlfr kallat srinn. Vir, sem kva Refr:

288. Barristinn nemr brjsti
borheim drasill skoru,
nau olir vir, en vi
verpr inn of rm stinnan.

Hmr, sem Brennu-Njll kva:

289. Senn jsum vr, svanni,
sextn, en brim vexti,
dreif hafskips hfa
hm, fjrum rmum.

essi eru enn svar heiti, sv at rtt er at kenna til skip ea gull. Rn, er sagt, at var kona gis, sv sem hr er:

290. Hrau himin upp glum
hafs, gekk sr af afli.
Br, hygg ek, at sk skeru.
Skaut Rnar vegr mna.

Dtr eira gis ok Rnar eru nu, ok eru nfn eira fyrr ritu: Himinglva, Dfa, Blughadda, Hefring, Ur, Hrnn, Bylgja, Drfn, Klga. Einarr Sklason tali essi vsu:

291. sir hvasst at hraustum
Himinglva yt svar,
sex nfn eira, [himinglva, Ur,
Dfa, Blughadda, Klga, Hefring].

Hrnn, sem Valgarr kva:

292. Laur var lagt beja,
lk sollit haf golli,
en herskipum hrannir
hfu gurlig gu.

Bylgja, sem ttarr svarti kva:

293. Skru skfnu stri,
skaut, sylghar bylgjur,
lk vi hn hreini
hlunns, at er drsir spunnu.

Drfn, sem Ormr kva:

294. Hrosta drgir hvern kost
hauk lrs girr,
en drafnar loga Lofn
lstu rkir vinfst.

Bra, sem orleikr fagri kva:

295. Sjr tr, en berr bra
bjart laur of vi rauan,
grnn ar er gulli bnum
gnn hlunnvsundr munni.

L, sem Einarr kva:

296. N framlyndir fundu
fyrr, hykkat l kyrru,
ar er sjr , vi varra,
vini ra fell strum.

Fyllr, sem Refr kva:

297. Hrynja fjll fyllar,
fram sisk n Glamma
skei vetrlii ska,
skautbjrn Gusis nauta.

Boi, sem hr er:

298. Boi fell of mik brla.
Bau heim me sr geimi.
ek eigi l lgis.

Breki, sem ttarr kva:

299. Braut, en breki aut,
bor, x viar mor,
mer fengu mikit ver,
mj fyrir ofan sj.

Vgr, sem Bragi kva:

300. Vildit vrngum ofra
vgs byrsendir gi,
hinn er mjtygil mva
mrar skar fyr ri.

Sund, sem Einarr kva:

301. Skar ek sum sund
fyr sunnan Hrund,
mn prddisk mund
vi mildings fund.

Fjrr, sem Einarr kva:

302. Nst s ek orm jastar
trserki vel merkan,
nemi bjr hv ek fer, flar,
fjarbls of at mli.

Sgr, sem Marks kva:

303. Sgs mun ek sr en eigi,
s er illr, er brag spillir,
slar sverri mlan,
slirls reginn, na.

77. Eldsheiti.

Hver eru elds heiti? Sv sem hr er:

304. Eldr brennat sj sjaldan,
svr dyggr jfurr byggir,
blsa rnn fyr rsi
reyk, er Magns kveykvir.

Logi, sem Valgarr kva:

305. Snarla skaut r sti,
sveyk of hs ok reykir
stu stopir san,
steinr logi glum.

Bl, sem hr er:

306. Haki var brenndr bli,
ar er brimslir u.

Glr, sem Grani kva:

307. Glr hygg ek Glamma slar,
gramr eldi sv, felldu.

Eisa, sem Atli kva:

308. x rsk, eisur vaxa,
allmrg, loga hallir,
hs brenna, gim geisar,
gmennit fellr bli.

Hr er ok gim gallat eldrinn. Eimr, sem hr er:

309. Brunnu allvalds inni,
eldr, hygg ek, at sal felldi,
eimr skaut her hrmi,
halfgr vi Ni sjalfa.

Hyrr, sem Arnrr kva:

310. Eymit r vi Rauma
reir Eydana meiir.
Heit dvnuu Heina,
hyrr geri kyrra.

Funi, sem Einarr kva:

311. Funi kyndisk fljtt,
en fli skjtt
Hsingar herr,
s er hafi verr.

Brmi, sem Valgarr kva:

312. Bjartr sveimai brmi,
brutu vkingar fkjum,
vsa styrks of virki,
varp sorg mey, borgar.

Leygr, sem Halldrr skvaldri kva:

313. r knttu ar eira,
vart aldrigi, skjaldar
leygr au of sjt, sigri
sviptr, gersimum skipta.

78. Heiti stundanna.

essi eru nfn stundanna: ld, forum, aldr, fyrir lngu, r, misseri, vetr, sumar, vr, haust, mnur, vika, dagr, ntt, morginn, aftann, kveld, rla, snemma, sla, sinn, fyrra dag, nst, gr, morgun, stund, ml. essi eru enn heiti ntrinnar Alsvinnsmlum:

314. Ntt heitir me mnnum,
en njla me goum,
kalla grmu ginnregin,
sorg kalla jtnar,
alfar svefngaman,
dvergar draumnjrun.

Fr jafndgri er haust, til ess er sl sezt eykarsta. er vetr til jafndgris. er vr til fardaga. er sumar til jafndgris. Haustmnur heitir inn nsti fyrir vetr, fyrstr vetri heitir gormnur, er frermnur, er hrtmnur, er orri, gi, einmnur, gaukmnur ok st, eggt ok stekkt, er slmnur ok selmnur, eru heyannir, er kornskurarmnur.

79. Konungaheiti.

Hver eru manna heiti kennd? Mar er hverr fyrir sr; it fyrsta ok it sta heiti manns, er kallar er mar keisari, v nst konungr, ar nst jarl. essir rr menn eigu saman essi heiti ll. Allvaldr, sv sem hr er kveit:

315. Allvalda kann ek alla
austr ok sur of flausta,
Sveins er sonr at reyna,
setr, hverjum gram betri.

Hr er ok gramr kallar. v heitir hann allvaldr, at hann er einvaldi alls rkis sns. Fylkir, sem Gizurr kva:

316. Fylkir gler folki
flags blakk ok svan Hlakkar,
lfr of vir lum
Yggs ggl fegin Skglar.

Fyrir v er fylkir kallar konungr, at hann skipar fylkingar herlii snu. Vsi, sem kva ttarr svarti:

317. Vsi tekr, vg-Freys,
vst austr munlaust,
aldar hefir allvaldr,
skvf, gtt lf.

Harri ea herra, sem kva Arnrr:

318. Harri fekk hverri
Hjaltlands rumu branda,
greppr vill grams dr yppa,
gagn, s er hstr var bragna.

Hertogi heitir jarl, ok er konungr sv kallar ok, fyrir v er hann leiir her til orrostu. Sv kva jlfr:

319. Ok hertoga hneykir
herfingnum lt stinga,
leyf ber ek hans, r hfi
haugs skundai augu.

Sinjr ea senjr, sem Sighvatr kva:

320. Lt auman n njta,
Nregs, ok gef strum,
ml halt, sv sem slan,
snjr, laga inna.

Mildingr, sem Marks kva:

321. Mildingr fr of j eldi,
auit var flotnum daua.
Hstan kyndu, hlenna rstir
hyrjar ljma sur at Jmi.

Mringr, sem Hallvarr kva:

322. Erat und jarar hslu,
orbrjtr Dnum forar
moldreks, munka valdi
mringr en nri.

Landreki, sem jlfr kva:

323. Eyss landreki ljsu
lastvarr Kraka barri,
sem fyrr var ritat.
v heitir hann sv,
at hann rekr her um land annarra
konunga ea rekr her r snu landi.

80. Fr Halfdani gamla ok konungattum.

Konungr er nefndr Hlfdan gamli, er allra konunga var gtastr. Hann geri blt mikit at mijum vetri ok bltai til ess, at hann skyldi lifa konungdmi snum rj hundru vetra. En hann fekk au andsvr, at hann myndi lifa ekki meir en einn mikinn mannsaldr, en at myndi vera rj hundru vetra, er engi myndi vera tt hans kona ea tiginn mar. Hann var hermar mikill ok fr va um Austrvegu. ar drap hann einvgi ann konung, er Sigtryggr ht. fekk hann eirar konu, er kllu er Alvig in spaka, dttir Emundar konungs r Hlmgari. au ttu sonu tjn ok vru nu senn bornir. eir htu sv: Einn var engill, er kallar var Manna-engill, annarr Rsir, rii Gramr, fjri Gylfi, fimmti Hilmir, stti Jfurr, sjaundi Tyggi, tti Skyli ea Skli, nundi Harri ea Herra. essir nu brr uru sv gtir hernai, at llum frum san eru nfn eira haldin fyrir tignarnfn, sv sem konungs nafn ea jarls. eir ttu engi brn ok fellu allir orrostum.

Sv kva ttarr svarti:

324. engill var egar ungr
reksgrr vgrr.
Haldask bi ek hans aldr,
hann tel ek yfirmann.

Sv kva Marks:

325. Rsir lt af ronum hausi
Rnar sl marfjll skna.

Sv kva Egill:

326. Gramr hefir gerihmrum
grundar upp of hrundit.

Sv kva Eyvindr:

327. Lk vi ljmgu,
skyldi land verja,
gylfi inn glavri,
st und gullhjalmi.

Sv kva Glmr Geirason:

328. Hilmir rau und hjalmi
beina laut Gautum.

Sv kva ttarr svarti:

329. Jfurr heyri upphaf,
ofrask mun konungs lof,
httu nemi hann rtt
hrrs mn, bragar sns.

Sem Stfr kva:

330. Treggjar hj tyggi
tveim hndum li beima,
reifr gekk herr und hlfar,
hizig sur fyr Nizi.

Sv kva Hallfrer:

331. Skilir em ek vi skylja,
skaldmld hefir v valdit.
Vtta vira drttins
vil er mest ok dul flestum.

Sv kva Marks:

332. Harra kve ek at hrrgr drri
hauklundaan Dana grundar.

Enn ttu au Hlfdan ara nu sonu, er sv heita; Hildir, er Hildingar eru fr komnir, annarr Nefir, er Niflungar eru fr komnir, rii Aui, er lingar eru fr komnir, fjri Yngvi, er Ynglingar eru fr komnir, fimmti Dagr, er Dglingar eru fr komnir, stti Bragi, er Bragningar eru fr komnir. at er tt Hlfdanar ins milda. Sjaundi Buli, er Bulungar eru fr komnir. Af Bulungatt kom Atli ok Brynhildr. tti er Lofi. Hann var herkonungr mikill. Honum fylgi at li, er Lofar vru kallair. Hans ttmenn eru kallair Lofungar. aan er kominn Eylimi, murfair Sigurar Ffnisbana. Nundi Sigarr, aan eru komnir Siklingar. at er tt Siggeirs, er var mgr Vlsungs, ok tt Sigars, er hengi Hagbar. Af Hildinga tt var kominn Haraldr inn granraui, murfair Hlfdanar svarta. Af Niflunga tt var Gjki, af linga tt var Kjrr, af Ylfinga tt var Eirkr inn mlspaki.

essar eru ok konunga ttir gtar: fr Yngva, er Ynglingar eru fr komnir, fr Skildi Danmrk, er Skjldungar eru fr komnir, fr Vlsungi Fraklandi, eir heita Vlsungar. Skelfir ht einn herkonungr, ok er hans tt kllu Skilfinga tt. S kynsl er Austrvegum. essar ttir, er n eru nefndar, hafa menn sett sv skldskap, at halda ll essi fyrir tignarnfn. Sv sem Einarr kva:

333. Fr ek vi holm at heyja
hildingar fram gingu,
lind var grn, inn grna
geiring, tvau springa.

Sem Grani kva:

334. Dglingr fekk at drekka
danskt bl ara ji.

Sem Gamli kva Gnvaarskld:

335. lingr drap sr ungum
ungr naglfara tungu
innan bors ok ora
aflger mealkafla.

Sem Jrunn kva:

336. Bragningr r bli,
bei herr konungs reii,
hs lutu oft fyr eisum,
jar slg rja.

Sv kva Einarr:

337. Beit bulungs hjrr,
bl fell drr.
[Raufsk Hildar sk
vi Hvtab.]

Sv kva Arnrr:

338. Siklinga venr snekkjur
sjltar konr ti.
Hann litar herskip innan,
hrafns g er at, bli.

Sem jlfr kva:

339. Sv lauk siklings vi
snjalls, at vr ’rom allir,
lofungr bei inn leyfi
lfs grand, sta vndum.

Lofa konungi fylgi at li, er Lofar heita. Sem Arnrr kva:

340. Skjldungr mun r annarr aldri
ri, gramr, und slu fask.

Vlsungr, sem kva orkell hamarskld:

341. Mr r senda
of svalan gi
Vlsunga nir
vpn gullbit.

Ynglingr, sem kva ttarr svarti:

342. Engi var jru
gnbrr, r r ni,
austr s er eyjum vestan
Ynglingr und sik ryngvi.

Yngvi, at er ok konungs heiti, sem Marks kva:

343. Eirks lof verr ld at heyra,
engi mar veit fremra engil,
Yngvi helt vi orstr langan
jfra sess, verld essi.

Skilfingr, sem Valgarr kva:

344. Skilfingr helt, ar er skulfu
skeir, fyr lnd in breiu,
eydd var, sur, of sir
Sikiley, lii miklu.

Snjr, sem Sighvatr kva ok fyrr var ritat:

345. Lt auman n njta
Nregs ok gef strum.


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