81. Heiti for men

Skalds are called bards; and in skaldship it is correct to call any man so whom one will. Those men who served King Hlfr were called Champions.1 and from their name warriors are called champions; and it is correct to call all men so. In skaldship men are called Lofdar also, as is written above.2 Those men were called Skatnar3 who served the king named Skati the Munificent: from his name every one who is munificent is called Skati. They who followed Bragi the Old were called Bragnar.4 They who assess the transactions of men are called taxers. Fyrdar5 and Firar6 are they called who defend the land. Vikings and fleet-men form a ship-army. They who followed King Beimuni were called Beimar.7 Captains of companies are called Grooms, even as he is called who carries home a bride. The Goths are named after that king who was called Goti, from whom Gotland is named: he was so called after Odin's name, derived from the name Gautr, for Gautland or Gotland was named after Odin's name, and Sweden from the name of Svidurr, which is also a title of Odin's. At that time all the mainland which he possessed was called Reid-Gotaland, and all the islands, Ey-Gotaland: that is now called the Realm of Danes or of Swedes.

Young men not householders are called Drengs, while they are acquiring wealth and glory: sea-faring Drengs are they who voyage from land to land; King's Drengs are they who serve rulers. They also are Drengs who serve wealthy men or franklins; valiant and ambitious men are called Drengs. Warriors are also called Champions and Troops: these are soldiers. Freeholders are called Thanes and Yeomen; those men who go about reconciling men are called Day-Men. These men are they who are called Champions, Kemps, Men of War, Brave Men, Valiant Men, Hardy Men, Overpowerers, Heroes. Over against these are the following terms: Soft, Weak, Unleavened, Leavenless, Melting One, Sheath, Coward, Skulker, Weakling, Qualmish, Caitiff, Scamp, Vile One, Dog, Lout, Feeble One, Paltry' One, Imbecile, Bungler, Son of Wretchedness.

A good man of his hands is called Munificent, Illustrious, Towerer, Mighty Towerer, Towering Gold-Giver, Prince of Men, Wealthy One, Prosperous, Heaper-Up of Riches, Mighty Man, Chieftain. In contrast to these are they who are called Niggard, Miser, Calculator, Wretched One, Wealth-Hiding, Gift-Tardy One. A man wise in Counsel is called Wielder of Counsel. A witless man is called Clown, Oaf, Gander, Dupe, Boor, Idiot, Dolt, Fool, Madman, Maniac, Moon-Struck. One who thinks much of dress is called Gaudy, Dreng, Glittering One, Careful of Attire, Tricked-Out. A noisy fellow is called Shark-Skin, Braggart, Sheath-Cleaner, Fawner, Brawler, Good-for-Naught, Worthless One. Common-folk are called Country-folk or People. A thrall is called Kept-Man, Serf, Laborer, Servant.

82. Heiti of groups

Each one singly is called man; 't is twain if they are two; three are a thorp; four are a group; a band is five men; if there are six, it is a squad; seven complete a crew; eight men make a panel; nine are 'good fellows;' ten are a gang; eleven form an embassy; it is a dozen if twelve go together; thirteen. are a crowd; fourteen are an expedition; it is a gathering, when fifteen meet; sixteen make a garrison; seventeen are a congregation; to him who meets eighteen, they seem enemies enough. He who has nineteen men has a company; twenty men are a posse; thirty are a squadron; forty, a community; fifty are a shire; sixty are an assembly; seventy are a line;8 eighty are a people; one hundred is a host.

83. True terms and surnames

Beside these there are those terms which men prefix to the names of men: we call such terms epithets of possession,9 or true terms, or surnames. It is an epithet of possession when one names a thing by its true name, and calls him whom one desires to periphrase Owner of that thing; or Father or Grandfather of that which was named; Grandsire is a third epithet. Moreover, a son is also called Heir, Heritor, Bairn, Child and Boy, Inheritor. A blood-kinsman is called Brother, Twin, Germane, Consanguine; a relation is also called Nephew, Kinsman, Kin, Kith, Friend, Kin-Stave, Descendant, Family-Prop, Family-Stem, Kin-Branch, Family-Bough, Offshoot, Offspring, Head-Tree, Scion. Kinsmen by marriage are further called Sib-folk, Minglers of Blood. A friend is called Counsel-Mate, Counsel-Giver, Adviser, Secret-Sharer, Converser, Bench-Fellow, Fondling, Seat-Mate; bench-fellow also means Cabin-Mate. A foe is called Adversary, Shooter Against One, Hater, Attacker, Scather, Slayer, Hard Presser, Pursuer, Overbearer.

These terms we call epithets of possession; and so also if a man is known by his dwelling or his ship, which has a name of its own, or by his estate, when a name of its own is given to it.

This we call true terms: to call a man Wise Man, Man of Thought, Wise in Speech, Sage in Counsel, Wealth Munificent, Not Slack, Endower, Illustrious One; these are surnames.

84. Heiti for women

These are simple terms for women in skaldship: Wife and Bride and Matron are those women who are given to a man. Those who walk in pomp and fine array are called Dame and Lady. They who are witty of speech are called Women of Wisdom.10 They who are gentle are called Girls; they who are of high countenance are called Proud and Haughty Ones. She who is of noble mind is called Gentlewoman;11 she who is richest, Lady. She who is bashful, as young -maids are, or those women who are modest, is called Lass. The woman whose husband has departed from the land is called Stay-at-Home.

That woman whose husband is slain is called War-Widow: Widow is the term for her whose husband has died of sick ness. Maid means, first, every woman, and then carlines that are old. Then there are those terms for women which are libellous: one may find them in songs, though they be not ill writing. Those women who have one husband in common are called Concubines. A son's wife is termed Daughter-in-law; the husband's mother is called Mother-in-law. A woman may also be called Mother, Grand mother, Great-Grandmother; a Mother is called Dam. Woman is further called Daughter, Bairn, and Child. She is also called Sister, [Lady, and Maiden].12 Woman is also called Bed-Fellow, Speech-Mate, and Secret-Sharer of her husband; and that is an epithet of possession.

85. The head and its parts

A man's head is termed thus: [thus should it be periphrased: call it Toil or Burden of the Neck; Land of the Helm, of the Hood, and of the Brain, of the Hair and Brows, of the Scalp, of Ears, Eves, and Mouth; Sword of Heimdallr, arid it is correct to name any term for sword which one desires; and to periphrase it in terms of every one of the names of Heimdallr]13 the Head, in simple terms, is called Skull, Brain, Temple, Crown. The eyes are termed Vision or Glance, and Regard, Swift-Appraising; [they may he so periphrased as to call them Sun or Moon, Shields and Glass or Jewels or Stones of the Eyelids, of the Brows, the Lashes, or the Forehead]. The ears are called [Listeners or Hearing];14 [one should periphrase t hem by calling them Land, or any earth-name, or Mouth, or Canal, or Vision, or Eyes of Hearing, if the metaphors employed are new-coined. The mouth one should periphrase by calling it Land or House of the Tongue or of the Teeth, of Words or of the Palate, of the Lips, or the like; and if the metaphors used are not traditional, then men may call the mouth Ship, and the lips the Planks, and the tongue Oar or Tiller of the Ship. The teeth are sometimes called Gravel or Rocks of Words, of the Mouth, or of the Tongue. The tongue is often called Sword of Speech or of the Mouth]. The hair which stands on the lips is called Beard, Moustache, or Whiskers. Hair is called Nap; the hair of women is called Tresses. Hair is termed Locks. [One may periphrase hair by calling it Forest, or by some tree-name; one may periphrase it in terms of the skull or brain or head; and the beard in terms of chin or cheeks or throat.]

86. The heart, breast, and feeling

The heart is called grain-sheaf; [one should periphrase it by terming it Grain or Stone or Apple or Nut or Ball, or the like, in figures of the breast or of feeling. More over, it may be called House or Earth or Mount of Feeling. One should periphrase the breast by calling it House or Garth or Ship of the Heart, of Breath, or of the Liver; Land of Energy, of Feeling, and of Memory]. Feeling is affection and emotion, love, passion, desire, love-longing. [Passion should be periphrased by calling it Wind of Troll Women; also it is correct to name what one soever is desired, and to name giants, periphrasing giantesses as Woman or Mother or Daughter of the Giants.] Feeling is also called mood, liking, eagerness, courage, activity, memory, understanding, temper, humor, good faith. It is also wrath, enmity, mischievousness, grimness, balefulness, grief, sorrow, ill-will, spite, falseness, faithlessness, fickleness, light-mindedness, baseness, hasty temper, violence.

87. The hand, the foot

The hand and fore-arm may be called hand, arm, paw, palm. Parts of the arm are called elbow, upper arm, wolf's joint,15 finger, grip, wrist, nail, finger-tip, hand-edge, quick. [One may term the hand Earth of Weapons or of Defensive Armor; and together with shoulder and arm, the hollow of the hand and the wrist, it may, be called Earth of Gold Rings, of the Falcon and the Hawk, and of all the equivalents thereof; and in new-coined metaphors, Leg of the Shoulder-joint, and Force of the Bow. The legs may be called Tree of the Soles, of the Insteps, of the Ankles, or the like; Running Shaft of the Road or of the Way or the Pace; one may call the leg Tree or Post of all these. The legs are periphrased in metaphors of snowshoes, shoes, and breeks.] The parts of the legs are called thigh, knee, calf, lower leg, upper leg, instep, arch, sole, toe; [one may periphrase the leg in terms of all these, calling it Tree, Mast, and Yard thereof; and in metaphors of them all].

88. Speech and understanding

Understanding is called wisdom, counsel, discernment, memory, speculation, intelligence, arithmetic, far sight,16 craft, word-wit, preminence. It is called subtlety, wiliness, falsehood, fickleness.

89. Of using what is hidden or punning

Expression is of two kinds: that which is called voice, and that which is called manners; manners is also temper. Reii17 also has double meaning: reii17 is the ill humor of a man, and reii17 is also the rigging of a ship or the driving-gear of a horse. Fr also has double meaning: fr17 signifies wrath, and far17 signifies a ship. Men have made frequent use of such ambiguous expressions as these; and this practice is called punning. [Lith18 is that part of a man where bones meet; li is a word for ship; li means people; when a man renders an other assistance, his aid is li; l signifies ale. Hli signifies the gate in a garth; hlir men call an ox, and hl signifies a slope. One may make such use of these distinct meanings in skaldship as to make a pun that is hard to interpret, provided one employ other distinctions than those which are indicated by the half-lines which precede. These cases are there, and many others, in which divers things have the same name in common.

[1. Rekkar.

2. See page 232.

3. Plural of Skati = lordly, towering.

4. Heroes.

5. Cf. A.-S. fyrd, firas.

6. Cf. A.-S. fyrd, firas.

7. Heroes, Men

8. Srvar, plural of srvi, a lady's necklace.

9. Vidhenningar: literally, by-periphrases.

10. Snt (plural, Sntir) = a gentlewoman. Cf. Snotr = wise. A popular etymology.

11. Literally = Plowshare. (See Cl.-Vig, p. 498.)

12. Ds; properly = sister. For discussion of these words, see under ds in Cl.-Vig., p. 100.

13. This and other pages in brackets are probably spurious.

14. These are the literal meanings; the meanings, in general usage, coincide: both words signify the inner parts of the ear (Cl.-Vig.).

15. This is the wrist-joint.

16. That is prophecy.

17. These are properly two different words.

18. Li.]


81. Mannaheiti.

Skld heita greppar, ok rtt er skldskap at kalla sv hvern mann, er vill. Rekkar vru kallair eir menn, er fylgu Hlfi konungi, ok af eirra nafni eru rekkar kallair hermenn, ok er rtt at kalla sv alla menn. Lofar heita ok menn skldskap, sem fyrr er ritat. Skatnar vru eir menn kallair, er fylgu eim konungi, er Skati mildi var kallar. Af hans nafni er skati kallar hverr, er mildr er. Bragnar heita eir, er fylgu Braga konungi inum gamla. Virar heita eir menn, er meta ml manna. Fyrar ok firar ok verar heita landvarnarmenn. Vkingar ok flotnar, at er skipa herr. Beimar, sv htu eir, er fylgu Beimuna konungi. Gumnar ea gumar heita flokkstjrar, sv sem gumi er kallar brfr. Gotnar eru kallair af heiti konungs ess, er Goti er nefndr, er Gotland er vi kent. Hann var kallar af nafni ins ok dregit af Gauts nafni, v at Gautland ea Gotland var kallat af nafni ins, en Svj af nafni Sviurs. at er ok heiti ins. ann tma var kallat allt meginland, at er hann tti, Reigotaland, en eyjar allar Eygotaland. at er n kallat Danaveldi ok Svaveldi. Drengir heita ungir menn blausir, mean eir afla sr fjr ea orstr, eir fardrengir, er milli landa fara, eir konungsdrengir, er hfingjum jna, eir ok drengir, er jna rkum mnnum ea bndum. Drengir heita vaskir menn ok batnandi.

Seggir eru kallair ok knar ok liar, at eru fylgarmenn. egnar ok hlar, sv eru bendr kallair. Ljnar heita eir menn, er ganga of sttir manna. eir menn eru, er sv eru kallair: kappar, kenpur, garpar, snillingar, hreystimenn, harmenni, afarmenni, hetjur. essi heiti standa hr mt at kalla mann blauan, veykan, jarfan, irfing, blotamann, skau, skrfu, skrj, vk, vm, lra, sleyma, teya, dugga, dsi, dirokkr, dusilmenni, lmusa, auvir, vlmgr. rr mar heitir mildingr, mringr, skati, jskati, gullskati, mannbaldr, slingr, slkeri, aukfingr, rkmenni, hfingi. Hr mt er sv kallat: hnggvingr, glggvingr, mlingr, vesalingr, fningr, gjflati. Heitir spekingr rvaldr. Heitir ok vitr mar ffl, afglapi, gassi, ginningr, gaurr, glpr, snpr, fli, rr, r, galinn. Snyrtimar oflti, drengr, glsimar, stertimar, primar. Heitir hraumi, skrpr, skrokkr, skeiklofi, flangi, slinni, fjsnir, slpr, drttr.

Lr heitir landflk ea ljr. Heitir ok rll kefsir, jnn, nnungr, irr.

82. Hpaheiti.

Mar heitir einn hverr, t, ef tveir eru, orp, ef rr eru, fjrir eru fruneyti, flokkr eru fimm menn, sveit, ef sex eru, sjau fylla sgn, tta bera mlisskor, nautar eru nu, dnn, ef tu eru, rir ro ellifu, togl er, ef tlf fara, yss eru rettn, fer fjrtn, fundr er , er fimmtn hittask, seta eru sextn, skn eru sautjn, rnir ykkja vinir, eim er tjn mtir, neyti hefir s, er ntjn menn hefir, drtt eru tuttugu menn. j eru rr tigir, flk eru fjrir tigir, fylki eru fimm tigir, samnar eru sex tigir, srvar eru sjau tigir, ld eru tta tigir, herr er hundra.

83. Vikenningar ok sannkenningar.

Enn eru au heiti, er menn lta ganga fyrir nfn manna. at kllum vr vikenningar ea sannkenningar ea fornfn. at eru vikenningar at nefna annan hlut rttu nafni ok kalla ann, er hann vill nefna, eiganda ea sv at kalla hann ess, er hann nefndi, fur ea afa. i er inn rii. Heitir ok sonr ok arfi, arfuni, barn, j ok mgr, erfingi. Heitir ok brir, bli, barmi, hlri, lifri. Heitir ok nir, nefi, ttungr, konr, kundr, frndi, kynstafr, nijungr, ttstuill, ttbarmr, kynkvsl, ttbogi, afkvmi, afspringr, hfubamr, ofskft. Heita ok mgar, sifjungar, hleytamenn. Heitir ok vinr ok runautr, rgjafi, mli, rni, spjalli, alda fti, einkili, sessi, sessunautr. fti er hlfrmisflagi. Heitir ok vinr, dlgr, andskoti, fjandi, skkvi, skaamar, banamar, rngvir, skkvir, svfrur. essi heiti kllum vr vikenningar ok sv, tt mar s kenndr vi b sinn ea skip sitt, at er nafn , ea eign sna, er einkarnafn er gefit. etta kllum vr sannkenningar, at kalla menn spekimann, tlunarmann, orspeking, rsnilling, aumilding, slkinn, gimann, glsimann. etta eru fornfn.

84. Kvennaheiti.

essi eru kvenna heiti kennd skldskap: Vf ok brr ok flj heita r konr, er manni eru gefnar. Sprund ok svanni heita r konr, er mjk fara me dramb ok skart. Sntir heita r, er ornfrar eru. Drsir heita r, er kyrrltar eru, svarri ok svarkr r, er mikilltar eru. Ristill er kllu s kona, er skruglynd er. Rgr heitir s, er rkust er. Feima er s kllu, er frm er, sv sem ungar meyjar ea r konur, er djarfar eru. Sta heitir s kona, er bandi hennar er af landi farinn. Hll er s kona kllu, er bandi hennar er veginn. Ekkja heitir s, er bandi hennar var sttdaur. Mr heitir fyrst hver, en kerlingar er gamlar eru. Eru enn au kvenna heiti, er til lastmlis eru, ok m au finna kvum, tt at s eigi ritat. r konur heita eljur, er einn mann eigu. Snr heitir sonarkvn. Svra heitir vers mir. Heitir ok mir, amma, rija edda. Eia heitir mir. Heitir ok dttir ok barn, j. Heitir ok systir, ds, jds. Kona er ok kllu beja, mla, rna banda sns, ok er at virkenning.

85. Hfu ok hlutar ess.

Hfu heitir manni. at skal sv kenna at kalla erfii hls ea byri, land hjlms ok hattar ok heila, hrs ok brna, svarar, eyrna, augna, munns. Heimdallar sver, ok er rtt at nefna hvert sversheiti, er vill, ok kenna vi eitt hvert nafn Heimdallar. Hfu heitir kennt hauss, hjarni, kjannr, kollr. Augu heita sjn ok lit ea virlit, rmjt. au m sv kenna at kalla sl ea tungl, skjldu ok gler ea gimsteina ea stein br ea brna, hvarma ea ennis. Eyru heita hlustir ok heyrn. au skal sv kenna at kalla land ea jararheitum nkkurum ea munn ea rs ea sjn ea augu heyrnarinnar, ef ngervingar eru. Munn skal sv kenna at kalla land ea hs tungu ea tanna, ora ea gma, varra ea vlkt, ok ef ngervingar eru, kalla menn munninn skip, en varrarnar borit, tunga rit ea strit. Tennr eru stundum kallaar grjt ea sker ora, munnr ea tunga. Tunga er oft kllu sver mls ea munns. Skegg heitir bar, grn ea kanpar, er stendr vrrum. Hr heitir l, haddr at, er konr hafa. Skoft heitir hr. Hr er sv kennt at kalla skg ea viarheiti nkkuru, kenna til hauss ea hjarna ea hfus, en skegg kenna vi hku ea kinnr ea kverkr.

86. Hjarta, brjst, hugr.

Hjarta heitir negg. at skal sv kenna, kalla korn ea stein ea epli ea hnot ea ml ea lkt ok kenna vi brjst ea hug, kalla m ok hs ea jr ea berg hugarins. Brjst skal sv kenna at kalla hs ea gar ea skip hjarta, anda ea lifrar, eljunar land, hugar ok minnis. Hugr heitir sefi ok sjafni, st, elskhugi, vili, munr. Huginn skal sv kenna at kalla vind trollkvenna, ok rtt at nefna til hverja, er vill, ok sv at nefna jtnana, ea kenna til konu ea mur ea dttur ess. Hugr heitir ok ge, okki, eljun, rekr, nenning, minni, vit, skap, lund, trygg. Heitir ok hugr reii, fjandskapr, fr, grimm, bl, harmr, tregi, skap, grellskap, lausung, trygg, geleysi, unngei, gessni, hargei, vri.

87. Hnd, ftr.

Hnd m kalla mund, arm, lm, hramm. hendi heitir lnbogi, armleggr, lflir, lir, fingr, greip, hreifi, nagl, gmr, jaarr, kvikva. Hnd m kalla jr vpna ea hlfa, vi axlar ok ermar, lfa ok hreifa, gullhringa jr ok vals ok hauks ok allra hans heita, ok ngervingum ft axlar, bognau. Ftr m kalla tr ilja, rista, leista ea vlkt, renniflein brautar ea gngu, fets. M kalla ftinn tr ea sto essa. Vi sk ok ska ok brkr eru ftr kenndir. fti heitir lr, kn, klfi, bein, leggr, rist, jarki, il, t. Vi etta allt m ftinn kenna ok kalla hann tr, ok kallat er sigla ok r ftrinn, ok kenna vi essa hluti.

88. Ml ok vit.

Ml heitir ok or ok ortak ok orsnilli, tala, saga, senna, rta, sngr, galdr, kveandi, skjal, bifa, hjaldr, hjal, skvl, glaumr, jarka, gyss, raft, sklp, hl, skraf, dlska, ljska, hgmi, afgelja. Heitir ok rdd, hljmr, rmr, mun, ytr, gll, gnr, glymr, rymr, rymr, brak, svipr, svipun, gangr. Vit heitir speki, r, skilning, minni, tlun, hyggjandi, tlvsi, langsi, bragvsi, orspeki, skrungskapr. Heitir undirhyggja, vlri, flri, brigri.

89. At yrkja flgit ea ofljst.

Lti er tvennt. Lti heitir rdd, lti heitir i, ok i er ok lund. Reii er ok tvkennt. Reii heitir at, er mar er illum hug, reii heitir ok fargervi skips ea hross. Far er ok tvkennt. Fr er reii, far er skip. vlk ortk hafa menn mjk til ess at yrkja flgit, ok er at kallat mjk ofljst. Li kalla menn at manni, er leggir mtast, li heitir skip, li heitir mannflk, li er ok at kallat, er mar veitir rum lisinni, l heitir l. Hli heitir gari, ok hli kalla menn uxa, en hl er brekka. essar greinir m setja sv skldskap, at gera ofljst, at vant er at skilja, ef ara skal hafa greinina en r ykki til horfa in fyrri vsuor. Slkt sama eru ok nnur mrg nfn, au er saman eigu heitit margir hlutir.


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