61. Kennings for weapons and armor

Weapons and armor should be periphrased in figures of battle, and with reference to Odin and the Valkyrs and host-kings: one should call a helmet Cowl, or Hood; a birnie, Sark, or Kirtle; a shield, Tent; and a shield-wall is termed Hall and Roof, Wall and Floor. Shields, periphrased in figures of warships, are called Sun, or Moon, or Leaf, or Sheen, or Garth, of the Ship; the shield is also called Ship of Ullr, or periphrased in terms of Hrungnir's feet, since he stood upon his shield. On ancient shields it was customary to paint a circle, which was called the 'ring,' and shields are called in metaphors of that ring. Hewing weapons, axes or swords, are called Fires of Blood, or of Wounds; swords are called Odin's Fires; but men call axes by the names of troll-women, and periphrase them in terms of blood or wounds or a forest or wood. Thrusting weapons are properly periphrased by calling them by names of serpents or fishes. Missile weapons are often metaphorically termed hail or sleet or storm. Variants of all these figures have been made in many ways, for they are used chiefly in poems of praise, where there is need of such metaphors.

So sang Vga-Glmr:

With the Hanged-God's helmet
The hosts have ceased from going
By the brink; not pleasant
The bravest held the venture.

Thus sang Einarr Tinkling-Scale:

Helm-folded strife-bold Bi,--
Who from the south went forth
Into Gunn's Crash,--and din-swift
Sigvaldi offered battle.

Sark of Rdi, as Tindr sang:

When came the birnied Hkon
To cast away the ring-rent
Streaming Sark of Odin,
Rdi's rocking sea-steeds were cleared.

Hamdir's Kirtle, as Hallfredr sang:

The war-sleet hard and streaming
Of Egill's weapons breaketh
Fiercely on Hamdir's Kirtles
Of the foremost wave-deer's warriors.

Srli's Garments, as he sang further:

Thence the bright Weeds of Srli
In men's blood must be reddened;
I hear it clearly: Wound-Fire
In cutting showers of iron.

Shields are called Tents of Hlkk, as Grettr sang:

Hlkk's Tent-Raisers held their noses
Together, and the heroes
Of the Rain-Storm of Hildr's Shield-Wall
Hewed at each other's beards.

Rdi's Roof, as Einarr sang:

Rdi's Roof's great Ice-Lump
For the Rain of Freyja's Eyelids
Grows not less, my fair axe-head;
His age my lord so useth.

Wall of Hildr, as Grettr sang, and as we have written before.

Ship-Sun, as Einarr sang:

In the sea lafr's Kinsman
Reddens the flame of the Ship-Sun.

Moon of the Ship's Cheek, as Refr sang:

Fair was the day, when Scatterers
Of Arm-Fire thrust the clear Moon
Of the Cheek into my hand-clasp,
The coiling track of red rings.

Ship's Garth, as here:

The swift Sweller of the Spear-Crash
Shot through the stain-dyed Prow-Garth
As it were birch-bark; truly
He was a bitter battler.

Ash of Ullr, as here:

The Snow-Gusts of Ullr's Ash-Ship
Grimly o'er our Prince shoot
With fullness, where are tossing
The fearsome covered spike-spars.

Blade of Hrungnir's Foot-Soles, as Bragi sang:

Wilt hear, O Hrafnketill,
How I shall praise the Sole-Blade
Of Thrdr's thief, stain-covered
With skill, and praise my king.

Bragi the Skald sang this concerning the ring on the shield:

Unless it be, that Sigurdr's
Renowned Son would have payment
In good kind for the ring-nave
Of the Ringing Wheel of Hildr.

He called the shield Wheel of Hildr, and the ring the Nave of the Wheel.

Ring-Earth, as Hallvardr sang:

The Chief of ranks of Combat
Sees the red-gleaming Ring-Earth
Fly in two parts; the white disk,
The pictured, bursts in sunder.

It is also sung:

A ring befits the shield best;
Arrows befit the bow.

A sword is Odin's Fire, as Kormkr sang:

The fight swelled, when the Warrior,
The Wolf's blithe Feeder, in tumult
Fared with Odin's ringing Fire-Flame;
Urdr came forth from the Well.

Fire of the Helm, as lfr Uggason sang:

The very mighty Maiden
Of the Mountain made the Sea-Horse
Roll forward, but the Champions
Of Odin's Helm-Fire felled her Wolf-Steed.

Fire of the Birnie, as Glmr Geirason sang:

At that the Land-Protector
Let the Birnie's Streaming Fire whine,
Hone-whetted, he who warded
Him strongly 'gainst the warriors.

Ice of the Rim, and Hurt of Sheltering Weapons, as Einarr sang:

I received the Ice of Wed Rims,
With Freyja's golden Eye-Thaw,
From the upright prince high-hearted;
We bear in hand the Helm's Hurt.

An axe is called Troll-Woman of Sheltering Weapons, as Einarr sang:

Rfill's Sea-Steed's Riders
May see how, richly carven,
The dragons close are brooding
'Gainst the brow of the Helm-Ogress.

A spear is called Serpent, as Refr sang:

My angry Murky Serpent
Of the markings of the Shield-Board
Savagely doth sport, in
My palms, where men in strife meet.

Arrows are called Hail of the Bow or Bowstring, or of the
Shelters, or of Battle, as Einarr Tinkling-Scale sang:

The hammering King of Swords shook
From the Sails of Hlkk the Bow-Hail:
Bravely the Wolf's Supporter
Warded his life in battle.

And Hallfredr:

And the armor of the Spear-Sleet,
Knitted with iron, saved not
The saters of hungry ravens
From the Shaft-Hail of the Bowstring.

And Eyvindr Skald- Despoiler:

They said, O Hrds' Land-Warder,
Thy spirit little faltered,
When the Birnie's Hail in the wound burst;
Bent were the stringd elm-bows.

62. Of the war of the Hjanings

Battle is called Storm or Snow-Shower of the Hjadnings, and weapons are termed Fire or Wands of Hjadnings; and this is the tale thereof: that king who was called Hgni had a daughter named Hildr: her King Hedinn, son of Hjarrandi, took as the spoils of war, while King Hgni attended an assembly of kings. But when he learned that there had been raiding in his realm and his daughter had been borne off, he departed with his host to seek Hedinn, and heard tidings of him, that he was proceeding northward along the land. When Hgni had come into Norway, he learned that Hedinn had sailed westward over the sea. Then Hgni sailed after him, even to the Orkneys; and when he landed at the place called Hoy, Hedinn was already there before him with his host. Then Hildr went to meet her father, and offered him a necklace on Hedinn's behalf, for reconciliation and peace; but if it were not accepted, she said, Hedinn was ready to fight, and Hgni might hope for no mercy at his hands.

"Hgni answered his daughter harshly; and when she returned to Hedinn, she told him that Hgni desired no reconciliation, and she bade him make ready for battle. So did both parties: they went to the island and marshalled their hosts. Then Hedinn called to Hgni his father-in-law, offering him reconciliation and much gold in compensation. But Hgni answered: 'Thou hast made this offer over-late, if thou wouldst make peace: for now I have drawn Dinsleif, which the dwarves made, and which must cause a man's death every time it is bared, nor ever fails in its stroke; moreover, the wound heals not if one be scratched with it.' Then said Hedinn: 'Thou dost boast in the sword, but not in the victory; I call any sword good which is faithful to its lord.' Then they began that famous battle which is called the Hjadnings' Strife, and they fought all that day, but at evening the kings went to their ships. Now Hildr went to the slain by night, and with magic quickened all those that were dead. The next day the kings went to the battlefield and fought, and so did all those that had fallen on the day before. So the fight went one day after the other: all who fell, and all those weapons which lay on the field, and the shields also, were turned to stone; but when day dawned, up rose all the dead men and fought, and all weapons were renewed. It is said in songs that in this fashion the Hjadnings shall continue unto the Weird of the Gods. Bragi the Skald composed verses after this tale in Ragnarr Lodbrk's Song of Praise:

And the belovd Maiden
Of the veins' blood-letting
Purposed to bring, for wrath's sake,
The bow-storm to her father:
When the ring-wearing lady,
The woman full of evil,
Bore the neck-ring of War-Doom
To the Battler of the Wind's Steeds.

That gory Wound-Amender
To the glorious Monarch offered
The necklace not for fear's sake,
At the mote of fatal weapons:
Ever as restraining battle
She seemed, although she goaded
Warriors to walk the death-road
With the ravening Wolf's dire Sister.

The Prince of Folk, the Land-God,
Let not the fight, wolf-gladdening,
Halt, nor slaughter on the sands cease,--
Hate, deadly, swelled in Hgni,
When the stern Lords of Sword-Din
Sought Hedinn with stern weapons,
Rather than receive
The necklet-rings of Hildr.

And that baleful Witch of Women,
Wasting the fruits of victory,
Took governance on the island
O'er the axe, the Birnie's Ruin;
All the Ship-King's war-host
Went wrathful 'neath the firm shields
Of Hjarrajidi, swift-marching
From Reifnir's fleet sea-horses.

On the fair shield of Svlnir
One may perceive the onslaught;
Ragnarr1gave me the Ship-Moon,
With many tales marked on it.

63. Battle referred to in relation to inn

Battle is called Storm of Odin, as is recorded above; so sang Vga-Glmr:

I cleared my way aforetime
Like earls to lands; the word went
Of this among the Storm-Staves,
The men of Vidrir's Sword-Wand.

Here battle is called Storm of Vidrir, and the sword is the Wand of Battle; men are Staves of the Sword. Here, then, both battle and weapons are used to make metaphors for man. It is called 'inlaying,' when one writes thus.

"The shield is the Land of Weapons, and weapons are Hail or Rain of that land, if one employs figures of later coinage.

64. Kennings for ships

How should the ship be periphrased? Call it Horse or Deer or Snowshoe of the Sea-King, or of Ship's Rigging, or of Storm. Steed of the Billow, as Hornklofi sang:

The Counsel-Stern Destroyer
Of the pale Steed of the Billow
When full young let the ships' prows
Press on the sea at flood-tide.

Geitir's Steed, as Erringar-Steinn sang:

But though to the skald all people
This strife from the south are telling,
We shall yet load Geitir's Sea-Steed
With stone; we voyage gladly.

Sveidi's Reindeer:

O Son of Sveinn strife-valiant,
Thou comest with Sveidi's Reindeer,
Long of seam, on the Seat of Slsi;
The Sound-Deer from land glided.

So sang Hallvardr. Here the ship is also called Deer of the Sound; and the Sea is called Slsi's Seat.

Thus sang Thrdr Sjreksson:

The swift Steed of the Gunwale
Around Sigg veered from northward,
The gust shoved Gylfi's Stream's Mirth,
The Gull's Wake-Horse, to southward
Of Aumar, laying fleetly
Both Krmt and Agdir's coastline
Along the stern; by Listi
The Leek's Steed lightly bounded.

Here the ship is called Steed of the Gunwale; and the sea is Gylfi's Land; the sea is also called Gull's Wake. The ship is called Horse, and further, Horse of the Leek: for 'leek' means 'mast.'

And again, as Marks sang:

The Stream's Winterling waded
Stoutly the Firth-Snake's Snow-Heaps;
The Tusker of the Mast-Head
Leaped o'er the Whale's spurned House-Tops;
The Bear of the Flood strode forward
On the ancient paths of sea-ships;
The Stay's Bear, shower-breasting.
Broke the Reef's splashing Fetter.

Here the ship is called Winterling of the Stream: a bear cub is called a Winterling; and a bear is called Tusker; the Bear of the Stay is a ship.

The ship is also called Reindeer, and so Hallvardr sang, as we have written before; and Hart, as King Haraldr Sigurdarson sang:

By Sicily then widely
The Seam cut: we were stately;
The Sea-Hart glided swiftly
As we hoped beneath the heroes.

And Elk, as Einarr sang:

The ring's mild Peace-Dispenser,
The princely hero, may not
Long bide with thee, if something
Aid not; we boune the Flood's Elk.

And Otter, as Mni sang:

What, laggard carle with gray cheeks,
Canst do among keen warriors
On the Otter of the Sea-Waves?
For thy strength is ebbing from thee.

Wolf, as Refr sang:

And the Hoard-Diminisher hearkened
To Thorsteinn; true my heart is
To the Lord of the Wolf of Billows
In the baleful Wrath-Wand's conflict.

And Ox also. The ship is called Snowshoe, or Wagon, or Wain. Thus sang Eyjlfr the Valiant Skald:

Late in the day the young Earl
In the Snowshoe of Landless Waters
Fared with equal following
To meet the fearless chieftain.

Thus sang Styrkrr Oddason:

Hgni's host drove the Wagons
Of Rollers o'er Heiti's snow-Heaps,
Angrily pursuing
The great Giver of Flood-Embers.

And as Thorbjrn sang:

The Freighter of Wave-Crests' Sea-Wain
Was in the font of christening,
Hoard-Scatterer, who was given
The White Christ's highest favor.

65. Kennings for Christ

How should one periphrase Christ? Thus: by calling Him Fashioner of Heaven and Earth, of Angels, and of the Sun; Governor of the World and of the Heavenly Kingdom and of Jerusalem and Jordan and the Land of the Greeks; Counsellor of the Apostles and of the Saints. Ancient skalds have written of Him in metaphors of Urdr's Well and Rome; as Eilfr Gudrnarson sang:

So has Rome's Mighty Ruler
In the Rocky Realms confirmd
His power; they say He sitteth
South, at the Well of Urdr.

Thus sang Skapti Throddssen:

The King of Monks is greatest
Of might, for God all governs;
Christ's power wrought this earth all,
And raised the Hall of Rome.

King of the Heavens, as Marks sang:

The King of the Wind-House fashioned
Earth, sky, and faithful peoples;
Christ, sole Prince of Mortals,
Hath power o'er all that liveth.

Thus sang Eilfr Klnasveinn:

The Host of the beaming World's Roof
And the Band of Illustrious bow down
To the Holy Cross; than all glory
Else the Sole Sun's King is brighter.

Son of Mary, as Eilfr sang further:

The bright Host of Heaven boweth
To Mary's Bairn: He winneth,
The Gentle Prince, of glory
The true might, God and man both.

King of Angels, as Eilfr sang again:

The goodly might of God's friend
Is better than men guess of;
Yet the Gracious King of Angels
Is dearer than all, and holier.

King of Jordan, as Sigvatr sang:

Four angels the King of Jordan
Sent long ago through aether
To earthward; and the stream washed
The holy head of the World's Lord.

King of Greeks, as Arnrr sang:

I have lodged for the hero's ashes
Prayers with the Lordly Warder
Of Greeks and men of Gardar:
Thus I pay my Prince for good gifts.

Thus sang Eilfr Klnasveinn:

The Glory of Heaven praises
Man's Prince: He is King of all things.

Here he called Christ, first, King of Men, and again, King of All. Enarr Sklason sang:

He who compasseth, Bright in Mercy,
All the world, and gently careth
For all, caused the realm of Heaven
To ope for the valiant ruler.

66. Kennings for kings and chieftains

There the metaphors coincide; and he who interprets the language of poesy learns to distinguish which king is meant; for it is correct to call the Emperor of Constantinople King of Greeks, and similarly to call the king who rules over the land of Jerusalem King of Jerusalem, and also to call the Emperor of Rome King of Rome, and to call him King of Angles' who governs England. But that periphrasis which was cited but now, which called Christ King of Men, may be had by, every king. It is proper to periphrase all kings by calling them Land-Rulers, or Land-Warders, or Land-Attackers, or Leader of Henchmen, or Warder of the People.

Thus sang Eyvindr Skald-Despoiler:

Who filled the ravens
From life was reft
By the Earth-Rulers
At gl.2

And as Glmr Geirason sang:

The Prince beneath the helmet
Reddened the sword hone-hollowed
On the Geats: there the Land-Warder
Was found in the grinding spear-din.

As Thjdlfr sang:

'T is my wish that the glorious Leader
Of Henchmen, the Glad-hearted,
Should leave his sons the heritage
And the sod of his fair freehold.

As Einarr sang:

The valiant-souled Earth-Warder
On his stern head the helm bears;
The bard before heroes telleth
The fame of the King of Hrdland.

It is right also to call him King of Kings, under whom are tributary kings. An emperor is highest of kings, and next under him is that king who reigns over a nation; and each of these is equal to the other in the periphrases made of them in poesy. Next to them are those men who are called earls or tributary kings: and they are equal in periphrasis with a king, save that one may not term them kings of nations. And thus sang Arnrr Earl's Skald concerning Earl Thorfinnr:

Let the men hear how the Earl's King,
Hardy of mind, the sea sought:
The overwhelming Ruler
Failed not to thwart the ocean.

Next to these in the figures of poesy are those men who are called chiefs: one may periphrase them as one might a king or an earl, calling them Dispensers of Gold, Wealth Munificent, Men of the Standards, and Captains of the Host, or Van-Leaders of the Array or of Battle; since each king of a nation, who rules over many lands, appoints tributary kings and earls in joint authority with himself, to administer the laws of the land and defend it from attack in those parts which lie far removed from the king. And in those parts they shall be equal with the king's self in giving judgment and meting punishment. Now there are many districts in one land; and it is the practice of kings to appoint justiciars over as many districts as one chooses to give into their hands. These justiciars are called chiefs or landed men in the Danish tongue, reeves in Saxony, and barons in England. They are also to be righteous judges and faithful warriors over the land which is entrusted to them for governance. If the king is not near, then a standard shall be borne before them in battle; and then they are quite as lawful war-captains as kings or earls.

"Next under them are those men who are called franklins: they are those freeholders who are of honorable kindred, and possessed of full rights. One may periphrase them by calling them Wealth-Givers, and Protectors, and Reconcilers of Men; headmen also may have these titles.

"Kings and earls have as their following the men called henchmen and house-carles; landed-men also have in their service those who are called henchmen in Denmark and Sweden, and house-carles in Norway, and these men swear oaths of service to them, even as henchmen do to kings. The house-carles of kings were often called henchmen in the old heathen time.

Thus sang Thorvaldr Blending Skald:

Hail, King, swift in the onset!
And thy sturdy house-carles with thee!
In their mouths men have my verses,
Made for a song of praising.

King Haraldr Sigurdarson composed this:

The man full mighty waiteth
The filling of the King's seat;
Oft, I find, to the Earl's heels
Throngs my host of house-carles.

Henchmen and house-carles may be periphrased by calling them House-Guard, or Wage-Band, or Men of Honor: thus sang Sigvatr:

I learned the Warrior's Wage-Band
On the water fought that battle
Newly: 't is not the smallest
Snow-shower of Shields I tell of.

And thus also:

When on the Steed of Cables
The clashing steel was meeting,
'T was not as when a maid bears
The Chief's mead to the Honor-Winners.

The service-fee which headmen give is called wages and gifts; thus sang ttarr the Swarthy:

I needs must use the Breaker
Of the Battle-Glow of good men;
Here is the watch war-doughty
Of the Wise King assembled.3

Earls and chiefs and henchmen are periphrased by calling them Counsellors or Speech-Friends or Seat-Mates of the King, as Hallfredr sang:

The Counsellor battle-mighty
Of the Prince, whom boldness pleases,
Lets the feud-fiery weeds of Hgni,
Hammer-beaten, clash upon him.

As Snaebjrn sang:

The Speech-Friend of Kings letteth
The long-hulled steer-rope's Race-Horse
Steady the swordlike steel beak
Of the ship against the stern wave.

Thus sang Arnrr:

My young sons do bear for my sake
Grave sorrow for the slaughter
Of the Earl, destroyed by murder,
The Bench-Mate of our Monarch.

King's Counsel-Friend, as Hallfredr sang:

In council 't was determined
That the King's Friend, wise in counsel,
Should wed the Land, sole Daughter
Of narr, greenly wooded.4

One should periphrase men by their kindred; as Kormkr sang:

Let the son of Haraldr's true friend
Give ear, and hearken to me:
I raise my song, the Yeast-Stream
Of Sr's snow-covered Monsters.

He called the Earl True Friend of the King, and Hkon, Son of Earl Sigurdr. And Thjdlfr sang thus concerning Haraldr:

About lafr's sire
Waxed the steel-knife-storm's ire,
That of wightness each deed
Is worthy fame's meed.

And again:

Jarizleifr could espy
Where the king passed by:
The brave, sainted lord's kin
Stoutly praise did win.

And again he sang:

Breath-bereft is he
Who o'er all bore the gree,--
Of chiefs kinsman mild,
Haraldr's brother's child.

Arnrr also sang thus in Rgnvaldr's Song of Praise:

Heiti's war-good kinsman
Made wedlock-kindred with me:
The earl's strong tie of marriage
Made honor to us rendered.

And again, concerning Earl Thorfinnr, he sang:

The thin-made swords bit keenly
Old Rgnvaldr's kin, to southward
Of Man, where rushed the strong hosts
Under the sheltering shield-rims.

And he sang further:

O God, guard the glorious
Kin-Betterer of great Turf-Einarr
From harm; I pray, show mercy
To him whom faithful chiefs love.

And Einarr Tinkling-Scale sang:

The House-Prop of the Kindred
Of Hilditnn shall not lack
Hardihood more munificent;
I am bound to maintain praises.

67. Heiti for poesy

How are the uninvolved terms of poesy made? By calling each thing by its proper name. What are the simple terms for poesy? It is called Poetry, Glorifying, Song, Laud, and Praise. Bragi the Old sang this, when he was travelling through a forest late at evening: a troll woman hailed him in verse, asking who passed:

'Trolls do call me
Moon's . . .
. . . of the giant,
Storm-sun's (?) bale,
Fellow-in-misery of the sibyl,
Warder of the circled ring-earth,
Wheel-devourer of the heaven.
What is the troll but that?'5

He answered thus:

'Skalds do call me
Vidurr's Shape-Smith,
Gautr's Gift-Finder,
Bard not faulty,
Yggr's Ale-Bearer,
Song's Arrayer,
Skilled Smith of Verse:
What is the Skald but this?'

And as Kormkr sang:

I make more Glorifying
By far o'er Hkon's great son:
I pay him the song-atonement
Of the gods. In his wain Thor sitteth.

And as Thrdr Kolbeinsson sang:

The Shield-Maple let many swift ships
And merchant-craft, and speedy
War-boats o'er the sea pour;
The skald's ready Song of Laud waxed.

Laud, as lfr Uggason sang:

Now the stream to the sea cometh;
But first the Laud I sang forth
Of the Messenger of Sword-Rain:
Thus I raise the praise of warriors.

Here poesy is called praise also.

68. Heiti for gods

How are the gods named? They are called Fetters, as Eyjlfr the Valiant Skald sang:

Eirkr draws the lands beneath him
At the pleasure of the Fetters,
And fashions the Spear-Battle.

And Bonds, as Thjdlfr of Hvin sang:

The skilful God-Deceiver
To the Bonds proved a stern sharer
Of bones: the Helmet-Hooded
Saw somewhat hindered seething.6

Powers, as Einarr Tinkling-Scale sang:

I say, the Mighty Powers
Magnify Hkon's empire.

Jlnar,7 as Eyvindr sang:

We have fashioned
The Feast of Jlnar,
The Prince's praise-song,
Strong as a stone bridge.

Deities,8 as Kormkr sang:

The Giver of Lands, who bindeth
The sail to the top, with gold-lace
Honors him who pours Deities' verse-mead;
Odin wrought charms on Rindr.9

69. Heiti for the heavens, the sun, and stars

These names of the heavens are recorded (but we have not found all these terms in poems; and these skaldic terms, even as others, are not meet for use in skaldic writing, methinks, unless one first find such names in the works of Chief Skalds): Heaven, Hlrnir, Heidthornir, Storm Mmir, Long-Lying, Light-Farer, Driving, Topmost Sky, Wide-Fathom, Vet-Mmir, Lightning, Destroyer, Wide-Blue. The solar planet is called Sun, Glory, Ever-Glow, All-Bright, Sight, Fair Wheel, Healing Ray, Dvalinn's Playmate, Elfin-Beam, Doubtful-Beam, Luminary. The lunar planet is called Moon, Waxer, Waner, Year-Teller, Mock-Sun, Fengari,10 Glamour, Haster, Crescent, Glare.

70. Heiti for the earth

Which are the simple terms for Earth? She is called Earth, as Thjdlfr sang:

The hardy Point-Rain's Urger
Oft caused the harsh sword-shower,
Ere under him the broad Earth
With battle he subjected.

Field, as ttarr sang:

The Prince guards the Field:
Few kings are so mighty;
leifr fattens the eagle,
Foremost is the Swedes' King.

Ground, as Hallvardr sang:

The broad Ground, 'neath the venom-cold Adder
Bound, lies subject to the Warrior
Of the Island-Fetter's heaped gold;
The Hone-Land's Lord the hoard dispenseth.

Haudr,11 as Einarr sang:

Brave heroes are defending
The hard Haudr of famous princes
With the sword; oft splits the helmet
Before the furious edge-storm.

Land, as Thrdr Kolbeinsson sang:

The Land, after the battle,
Was laid low from Veiga northward
To Agdir south, or farther:
Hard is song in conflict.

Fief, as ttarr sang:

Thou, fierce War-Staff, maintainedst
The Fief despite two Monarchs
With heroes' kin. where the ravens
Starved not; keen-hearted art thou.12

Hldyn,13 as Vlu-Steinn sang:

I remember how murky earth yawned
With graven mouth for the Sender
Of the Gold-Words of the Giant
Of the hard bones of Green Hldyn.

Country, as lfr Uggason sang:

But the flashing-eyed stiff Edge-Rope
Of the Earth stared past the gunwale
At the Rowan-Tree of the Country
Of Stone, the Giant-Tester.14

Fjrgyn,15 as is said here:

I was faithful to the free Payer
Of the stream-bed of Fjrgyn's Serpent;
May honor be closely guarded
By the Giver of the Giant's Stream-gold.

[1. See Stanza 51 Of the Vlsungar.

2. The reverse of Gregory's pun: "Non Angli sed angeli."

3. See Stanza 56 Further on kennings for gold.

4. Stanza 32 Kennings for the earth.

5. "Eru trll-kenningar, sumar myrkar." Jnsson, p. 403.

6. See Stanza 30 Kennings for Iunn.

7. This word, in the singular, is one of the names of Odin. I can find no etymology for it.

8. A rare and doubtful word. According to Cl.-Vig., the word occurs only twice: Yngl. S., ch. ii, and here. Cl.-Vig. holds that the word probably meant priests: "The dar of the Yngl. S. were probably analogous to the Icel. godi, from god (deus)" (p. 100).

9. See Stanza 9 Heiti and kennings for inn.

10. Byzant. {Greek fegga'ri}; an {Greek a?'p. leg.}" (Cl.-Vig., p. 151).

11. "Etymology not known" (Cl.-Vig., p. 241).

12. See Stanza 59. Men referred to as trees.

13. A personification.

14. See Stanza 59. Men referred to as trees.

15. Cf. Goth. fairguni (= a mountain) and A.-S. fyrgen. A personification: Fjrgynn is father of Frigg and of Jrd (Earth).]


61. Vpnakenningar ok herkla.

Vpn ok herkli skal kenna til orrostu ok til ins ok valmeyja ok herkonunga, kalla hjlm htt ea fald, en brynju serk ea skyrtu, en skjld tjald, ok skjaldborgin er kllu hll ok rfr, veggr ok glf. Skildir eru kallair ok kenndir vi herskip, sl ea tungl ea lauf ea blik ea garr skipsins. Skjldr er ok kallar skip Ullar ea kennt til fta Hrungnis, er hann st skildi. fornum skjldum var ttt at skrifa rnd , er baugr var kallar, ok eru vi ann baug skildir kenndir. Hggvpn, xar ea sver, er kallat eldar bls ea benja. Sver heita ins eldar, en xar kalla menn trollkvinna heitum ok kenna vi bl ea benjar ea skg ea vi. Lagvpn eru vel kennd til orma ea fiska. Skotvpn eru mjk kennd til hagls ea drfu ea rotu. llum essum kenningum er marga lund breytt, v at at er flest ort lofkvum, er essar kenningar arf vi. Sv kva Vga-Glmr:

164. Lattisk herr me httu
Hangats at ganga,
ttit eim at htta
ekkiligt, fyr brekku.

Sv kva Einarr sklaglamm:

165. Hjalmfaldinn bau hildi
hjaldrrr ok Sigvaldi,
hinn er fr gn Gunnar,
gunndjarfr Bi, sunnan.

Ra serkr, sem Tindr kva:

166. er hringfum Hanga
hrynserk, vium brynju
hruusk rimarar Ra
rastar, var at kasta.

Hamis skyrta, sem Hallfrer kva:

167. ltinn brestr ti
unndrs frmum runnum
hart Hamis skyrtum
hryngrp Egils vpna.

Srla ft, enn sem hann kva:

168. aan vera ft fyra,
fregn ek grla at, Srla
rjask bjrt bli
benfr mil-skrum.

[Hlakkar tjld], sem Grettir kva:

169. Heldu Hlakkar tjalda
hefjendr saman nefjum
Hildar veggs ok hjuggusk
hregg-Nirir til skeggjum.

Ra rfr, sem Einarr kva:

170. Eigi verr fyrir augna
s bevinu Ra
rfrs, eignisk s, regni
ramsvell, konungr elli.

Hildar veggr, sem kva Grettir ok r er ritat. Skipsl, sem Einarr kva:

171. Leyg rr tt gi
lfs skipa slar.

Hlrtungl, sem Refr kva:

172. Dagr var frr, s er fgru
fleygjendr alinleygjar
hangferil hringa
hlrtungli mr rungu.

Garr skips, sem hr er:

173. Sv skaut gegn ggnum
gar steinfarinn bara,
s var, gnstrir geira,
gunnar fr, sem nfrar.

Askr Ullar, sem jlfr kva:

174. Ganga l of yngva
Ullar skips me fullu,
ar er samnagla siglur
slrdkaar ra.

Ilja bla Hrungnis, sem Bragi kva:

175. Vili, Hrafnketill, heyra,
hv hreingrit steini
rar skal ek ok engil
jfs ilja bla leyfa?

Bragi skld kva etta um bauginn skildinum:

176. Nema sv at g ins gjalla
gjld baugnafas vildi
meyjar hjls inn mri
mgr Siguar Hgna.

Hann kallai skjldinn Hildar hjl, en bauginn nf hjlsins. Baugjr, sem Hallvarr kva:

177. Rauljsa sr rsir,
rt brestr sundr in hvta,
baugjr brodda ferar,
bjgrennd, tvau fljga.

Sv er enn kveit:

178. Baugr er beru smstr,
en boga rvar.

Sver er ins eldr, sem Kormkr kva:

179. Svall, er gekk me gjallan
Gauts eld, hinn er styr belldi,
glafandi Grar,
gunnr. Komsk Urr r brunni

Hjlms eldr, sem kva lfr Uggason:

180. Fullflug lt fjalla
fram haf-Sleipni ramma
Hildr, en Hrofts of gildar
hjalmelda mar felldu.

Brynju eldr, sem kva Glmr Geirason:

181. Heinynntan lt hvna
hryneld at at brynju
foldar vrr, s er fyrum
fjrn-haran sik vari.

Randar ss ok grand hlfar, sem Einarr kva:

182. Rvndum ek raura
randa s at vsa,
grand berum hjalms hendi,
hvarmey drifinn Freyju.

x heitir trollkona hlfa, sem Einarr kva:

183. Sj megu rtt, hv, Rfils
rendr, vi br Grar
fjrnis fagrt of skornir,
foldviggs, drekar liggja.

Spjt er ormr kallat, sem Refr kva:

184. Kn myrkdreki marka
minn, ar er tar finnask,
fr aldar lfum
eikinn bors at leika.

rvar eru kallaar hagl boga ea strengjar ea hlfa ea orrostu, sem Einarr kva sklaglamm:

185. Brak-Rgnir skk bogna,
barg yrmir varga,
hagl r Hlakkar seglum,
hjrs, rakkliga fjrvi.

Ok Hallfrer:

186. Ok geir-Rtu gtvar
gagls vi strengjar hagli
hungreyndum hanga
hlut jrni sar.

Ok Eyvindr skldaspillir:

187. Ltt kvu ik lta,
landvrr, er brast, Hra,
brynju hagl benjum,
bugusk almar, ge falma.

62. Fr Hjaningavgum.

Orrosta er kllu Hjaninga ver ea l ok vpn Hjaninga eldr ea vendir, en saga er til ess. Konungr s, er Hgni er nefndr, tti dttur, er Hildr ht. Hana tk at herfangi konungr s, er Heinn ht Hjarrandason. var Hgni konungr farinn konunga stefnu. En er hann spuri, at herjat var rki hans ok dttir hans braut tekin, fr hann me snu lii at leita Heins ok spuri til hans, at hann fr norr me landi. er Hgni konungr kom Nreg, spuri hann, at Heinn hafi siglt vestr of haf. siglir Hgni eftir honum allt til Orkneyja, ok er hann kom ar, sem heitir Hey, var ar fyrir Heinn me li sitt.

fr Hildr fund fur sns ok bau honum men at stt af hendi Heins, en ru ori sagi hon, at Heinn vri binn at berjast ok tti Hgni af honum engrar vgar vn. Hgni svarar stirt dttur sinni. En er hon hitti Hein, sagi hon honum, at Hgni vildi enga stt, ok ba hann bast til orrostu, ok sv gera eir hvrirtveggju, ganga upp eyna ok fylkja liinu.

kallar Heinn Hgna, mg sinn, ok bau honum stt ok mikit gull at btum.

svarar Hgni: "Of s bauttu etta, ef vill sttast, v a n hefi ek dregit Dinsleif, er dvergarnir geru, er mannsbani skal vera, hvert sinn er bert er, ok aldri bilar hggvi ok ekki sr grr, ef ar skeinist af."

mlti Heinn: "Sveri hlir ar, en eigi sigri. at kallak gott hvert, er drttinhollt er."

hfu eir orrostu , er Hjaningavg er kallat, ok brust ann dag allan, ok at kveldi fru konungar til skipa. En Hildr gekk of nttina til valsins ok vaki upp me fjlkynngi alla , er dauir vru. Ok annan dag gengu konungarnir vgvllinn ok brust ok sv allir eir, er fellu inn fyrra daginn. Fr sv s orrosta hvern dag eftir annan, at allir, eir er fellu, ok ll vpn, au er lgu vgvelli, ok sv hlfar, uru, at grjti. En er dagai, stu upp allir dauir menn ok brust, ok ll vpn vru nt. Sv er sagt kvum, at Hjaningar skulu sv ba ragnarks. Eftir essi sgu orti Bragi skld Ragnars drpu lobrkar.

63. Orrosta kennd til ins.

Orrosta er ver ins, sem fyrr er ritat. Sv kva Vga-Glmr:

188. Rudda ek sem jarlar,
or lk v, forum
me verstfum Viris
vandar mr til landa.

Viris ver er hr kallat orrusta, en vndr vgs sverit, en menn stafir sversins. Hr er bi orrosta ok vpn haft til kenningar mannins. at er rekit kallat, er sv er ort. Skjldr er land vpnanna, en vpn er hagl ea regn ess lands, ef ngervingum er ort.

64. Skipskenningar.

Hvernig skal kenna skip? Sv, at kalla hest ea dr ea sk skonunga ea svar ea skipreia ea vers. Bru fkr, sem Hornklofi kva:

189. Hrjr lt hstrar tar
harrr skipa brum
bru fks ins bleika
barnungr lg rungit.

Geitis marr, sv kva Erringar-Steinn:

190. En tt fri sunnan
ll j segi skaldi,
hlum Geitis mar grjti,
glair nennum vr, enna.

Sveia hreinar:

191. Slngum komt sveia,
sunds liu dr fr grundu,
sigrakkr, Slsa bekkjar,
Sveins mgr, tr hreinum.

Sv kva Hallvarr. Hr er ok kllu sunds dr ok srinn Slsa bekkr. Sv kva rr Sjreksson:

192. Sveggja lt fyr Siggju
slbors goti noran.
Gustr skaut Gylfa rastar
glaumi sur fyr Aumar
En slgoti san
sings fyr skut bi,
hestr lauks fyr Lista,
lagi Krmt ok Agir.

Hr er skip kallat slbors hestr ok sr Gylfa land, sings sl srinn ok hestr skipit ok enn lauks hestr. Laukr heitir siglutr. Ok enn sem Marks kva:

193. Fjarlinna fannir
fast vetrlii rastar.
Hljp of hna gnpur
hvals rann ugtanni.
Bjrn gekk fram fornar
fls hafska slir.
Skrrigr braut skoru
skers glymfjtur bersi.

Hr er skip kallat bjrn rasta. Bjrn heitir vetrlii ok ugtanni ok bersi, ok bjrn skoru er hr kallat. Skip er ok kallat hreinn, sv kva Hallvarr, sem r er ritat, ok hjrtr, sem kva Haraldr konungr Sigurarson:

194. Snei fyr Sikiley va
s, vrum prir.
Brnt skrei vel til vnar
vengis hjrtr und drengjum.

Ok elgr, sem Einarr kva:

195. Baugs, getr me r eygi,
r, drengr vera lengi,
elg bum fls, nema fylgi,
fristkkvir, v nkkut.

Otr, sem Mni kva:

196. Hvat munt hafs otri,
hengiligr, me drengjum,
karl, v at kraftr inn frlask,
kinngrr, mega vinna?

Vargr, sem kva Refr:

197. En hoddvnur hlddi,
hlunnvitnis em ek runni
hollr til hermar-spjalla
heinvandils, rsteini.

Ok oxi. Skip er kallat sk ea vagn ea rei. Sv kva Eyjlfr daskld:

198. Meita fr at mti
mjk s of dag ski
ungr me jfnu gengi
tvers frmum hersi.

Sv kva Styrkrr Oddason:

199. Ok eft trum stkkvi
k Hgna li vgnum
hlunns Heita fannir
hyrjar fls af mi.

Ok sem orbjrn kva:

200. Hafreiar var hlir
hlunns skrnar brunni,
Hvta-Krists s er hsta
hoddsviptir fekk giftu.

65. Kristskenningar.

Hvernig skal Krist kenna? Sv, at kalla hann skapara himins ok jarar, engla ok slar, stranda heims ok himinrkis ok engla, konung himna ok slar ok engla ok Jrsala ok Jrdnar ok Grklands, randi postula ok heilagra manna. Forn skld hafa kennt hann vi Urarbrunn ok Rm, sem kva Eilfr Gurnarson:

201. Setbergs, kvea sitja
sunnr at Urarbrunni,
sv hefir rammr konungr remman
Rms banda sig lndum.

Sv kva Skafti roddsson:

202. Mttr er munka drttins
mestr, aflar go flestu.
Kristr skp rkr ok reisti
Rms hll verld alla.

Himna konungr, sem Marks kva:

203. Gramr skp grund ok himna
glyggranns sem her dyggvan,
einn stillir m llu
aldar Kristr of valda.

Sv kva Eilifr klnasveinn:

204. Hrts ltr helgum krzi
heims fer ok li beima.
Snn er en ll dr nnur
einn slkonungr hreinni.

Mru sonr, enn sem Eilfr kva:

205. Hir ltr himna, drar,
hvein Mru sveini,
mtt vinnr mildingr drttar,
mar er hann ok go, sannan.

Engla konungr, enn sem Eilfr kva:

206. Mttr er en menn of hyggi
mtr gos vinar betri.
er engla gramr llu
rr helgari ok drri.

Jrdnar konungr, sem kva Sighvatr:

207. Endr r engla senda
Jrdnar gramr fjra,
fors hans hersi
heilagt skoft, r lofti.

Grikkja konungr, sem Arnrr kva:

208. Bnir hefi ek fyr beini
bragna falls vi snjallan
Grikkja vr ok Gara.
Gjf launak sv jfri.

Sv kva Eilfr klnasveinn:

209. Himins dr lofar hla,
hann er alls konungr, stilli.

Hr kallai hann fyrst Krist konung manna ok annat sinn alls konung. Enn kva Einarr Sklason:

210. Lt, s er landfolks gtir,
lknbjartr himinrki
umgeypnandi opna
alls heims fyr gram snjllum.

66. Konungakenningar ok fyrirmanna.

ar koma saman kenningar, ok verr s at skilja af st, er rr skldskapinn, um hvrn kveit er konunginn, v at rtt er at kalla Miklagarskeisara Grikkjakonung, ok sv ann konung, er rr Jrsalalandi, at kalla Jrsalakonung, sv ok at kalla Rmskonung Rmaborgarkeisara, ea Englakonung, ann er Englandi rr. En s kenning, er r var ritat, at kalla Krist konung manna, kenning m eiga hverr konungur. Konunga alla er rtt at kenna sv at kalla landrendr ea landsvru ea landsski ea hirstjra ea vr landsflks. Sv kva Eyvindr skldaspillir:

211. Farmats
fjrvi nmu

Ok sem Glmr kva Geirason:

212. Hilmir rau und hjalmi
heina laut Gautum.
ar var gn geira
grundar vrr of fundinn.

Sem jlfr kva:

213. Hr skyli hirar stjri
hugreifr sonum leifa
arf ok altorfu,
sk mn er at, sna.

Sem Einarr kva:

214. Snks berr fald of frknu
folkvrr, konungs Hra
frama telr greppr fyr gumnum,
gesnjallr skarar fjalli.

Rtt er ok um hann konung, er undir honum eru skattkonungar, at kalla hann konung konunga. Keisari er str konunga, en ar nst er konungr s, er rr fyrir jlandi, jafn kenningum llum hverr vi annan skldskap. ar nst eru eir menn, er jarlar heita ea skattkonungar, ok eru eir jafnir kenningum vi konung, nema eigi m kalla jkonunga, er skattkonungar eru. Ok sv kva Arnrr jarlaskld of orfinn jarl:

215. Nemi drtt, hv sj stti
snarlyndr konungr jarla.
Eigi raut vi gi
ofvgjan gram bgja.

ar nst eru kenningum skldskap eir menn, er hersar heita. Kenna m sem konung ea jarl, sv at kalla gullbrjta ok aumildinga ok merkismenn ok flksstjra ea kalla hann oddvita lisins ea orrostu, fyrir v at jkonungr hverr, s er rr mrgum lndum, setr hann til landstjrnar me sr skattkonunga ok jarla at dma landslg ok verja land fyrir frii eim lndum, er konungi liggja fjarri, ok skulu eir dmar ok refsingar vera ar jafnrttir sem sjlfs konungs. En einu landi eru mrg heru, ok er at httr konunga at setja ar rttara yfir sv mrg heru sem hann gefr til valds, ok heita eir hersar ea lendir menn danskri tungu, en greifar Saxlandi, en barnar Englandi. eir skulu ok vera rttir dmarar ok rttir landvarnarmenn yfir v rki, er eim er fengit til stjrnar. Ef eigi er konungr nr, skal fyrir eim merki bera orrostum, ok eru eir jafnrttir herstjrar sem konungar ea jarlar. ar nst eru eir menn, er hlar heita. at eru bendr eir, er gildir eru at ttum ok rttum fullum. m sv kenna at kalla veitanda fjr ok gtanda ok stti manna. essar kenningar megu ok eiga hfingjar. Konungar ok jarlar hafa til fylgar me sr menn, er hirmenn heita ok hskarlar, en lendir menn hafa ok sr handgengna menn, er Danmrku ok Svj eru hirmenn kallair, en Nregi hskarlar, ok sverja eir eia sv sem hirmenn konungum. Hskarlar konunga vru mjk hirmenn kallair forneskju. Sv kva orvaldr blnduskld:

216. Konungr heill ok sv snjallir
skn-rr, vi lof grvan
hafa menn munni
mnn, hskarlar nir.

etta orti Haraldr konungr Sigurarson: 217. Fullafli br fyllar,
finn ek oft at drfr minna,
hilmis stls, hla
hskarla li jarli.

Hirmenn ok hskarla hfingja m sv kenna at kalla inndrtt ea verung ea heimenn. Sv kva Sighvatr:

218. at fr ek vg vatni
verung jfurs geru,
nadda l en, nla,
nst tel ek engi in smstu.

Ok enn etta:

219. gi var sem essum
engils j strengjar
mj fyr malma kveju
mr heiegum bri.

Heif heitir mli ok gjf, er hfingjar gefa. Sv kva ttarr svarti:

220. Gmennis arf ek gunnar
glbrjtanda at njta.
Hr er alnennin inni
inndrtt me gram svinnum.

Jarlar ok hersar ok hirmenn eru sv kenndir, kallair konungs rnar ea mlar ea sessar. Sv kva Hallfrer:

221. Grams rni ltr glymja
gunnrkr, hinn er hvt lkar,
Hgna hamri slegnar
heiftbrr of sik vir.

Sem Snbjrn kva:

222. Stjrnvijar ltr styja
stls bulinga mli
hlemmisver vi harri
hflagan sk dfu.

Sv kva Arnrr:

223. Bera sn of mik mnir
morkennds taka enda
ess of engils sessa
ung mein synir ungir.

Konungs spjalli, sem Hallfrer kva:

224. R lukusk, at s, san,
snjallrr konungs spjalli
tti eingadttur
nars vii grna.

Sv skal menn kenna vi ttir, sem Kormkr kva:

225. Heyri sonr , Srar,
sannreynis, fentanna
rr greppa ltk uppi
jast-Rn, Haralds, mna.

Hann kallai jarlinn sannreyni konungsins, en Hkon jarl son Sigurar jarls. En jlfr kva sv um Harald:

226. Vex lfs fer
jrnsaxa ver,
harri hvert
sv at hrrs er vert.

Ok enn sv:

227. Jarizleifr of s,
hvert jfri br.
Hfsk hlri fram
ins helga grams.

Ok enn kva hann:

228. Andar er s,
er of alla br,
haukstalla konr,
Haralds brursonr.

Enn kva sv Arnrr Rgnvaldsdrpu:

229. R Heita konr hleyti
herarfr vi mik gerva.
Styrk lt oss of orkat
jarls mg af v frgar.

Ok enn kva hann of orfinn jarl:

230. Bitu sver, en ar uru,
unngr fyr Mn sunnan
Rgnvalds kind, und randir
ramlig folk, ins gamla.

Ok enn kva hann:

231. ttbti firr tran
allrks, en ek bi lkna
trra tyggja drum,
Torf-Einars go meinum.

Ok enn kva Einarr sklaglamm:

232. N ttstuill ttar
gnheri mun vera,
skyldr em ek hrri at halda,
Hilditanns in mildri.

67. Skldskaparheiti.

Hvernig er kennd setning skldskapar? Sv, at nefna hvern hlut sem heitir. Hver eru kennd nfn skldskaparins? Hann heitir bragr ok hrr, r, mr, lof. etta kva Bragi inn gamli, er hann k um skg nkkurn s um kveld. stefjai trollkona hann ok spuri, hverr ar fr:

233. Troll kalla mik
tungl sjt-rungnis,
ausug jtuns,
lslar bl,
vlsinn vlu,
vr nafjarar,
hvlsvelg himins.
Hvat er troll, nema at?

Hann svari sv:

234. Skald kalla mik
skapsmi Viurs,
Gauts gjafrtu,
grepp hneppan,
Yggs lbera,
s skapma,
hagsmi bragar.
Hvat er skald, nema at?

Ok sem Kormkr kva:

235. Hrr geri ek of mg mran
meir Sigrar fleira;
haftsnis geld ek hnum
hei. Sitr rr reiu.

Ok sem kva rr Kolbeinsson:

236. Mjk lt margar snekkjur,
mrar rr, sem knrru,
r vex skalds, ok skeiar
skjaldhlynr brim dynja.

Mr, sem lfr Uggason kva:

237. ar kemr , en ri
endr bar ek mr af hendi,
ofra ek sv, til svar,
sverregns, lofi egna.

Hr er lof kallat skldskapr.

68. Goaheiti.

Hvernig eru nfn goanna? au heita bnd, sem kva Eyjlfr daskld:

238. Dregr land at mun banda
Eirkr und sik geira
vemildr ok semr hildi.

Ok hft, sem kva jlfr inn hvinverski:

239. Tormilar var tvum
tlhreinn meal beina.
Hvat kva hafta snytrir
hjalmfaldinn v valda.

Rgn, sem Einarr kva sklaglamm:

240. Rammaukin kve ek rki
rgn Hkunar magna.

Jlnar, sem Eyvindr kva:

241. Jlna sumbl
enn vr gtum,
stillis lof,
sem steina br.

Dar, sem Kormkr kva:

242. Eykr me ennidki
jarhljtr da fjarar
breyti, hn s er, beinan,
bindr. Sei Yggr til Rindar.

69. Himins heiti, slar ok tungls.

essi nfn himins eru ritu, en eigi hfum vr fundit kvum ll essi heiti. En essi skldskaparheiti sem nnur ykkir mr skylt at hafa skldskap, nema r finni hann verka hfusklda vlk heiti.

Himinn: hlrnir, heiorrnir, hreggmmir, andlangr, ljsfari, drfandi, skatyrnir, vfemir, vetmmir, leiftr, hrjr, vblinn.

Sl: sunna, rull, eygla, alskr, sni, fagrahvl, lknskin, Dvalins leika, lfrull, ifrull, mylin.

Tungl: mni, n, ni, rtali, mulinn, fengari, glmr, skyndir, skjlgr, skrmr.

70. Jararheiti.

Hver eru jararheiti? Hon heitir jr, sem jlfr kva:

243. Jarl ltr odda skrar
oft herir gr vera
hrings, r hann of ryngvi,
hr l, und sik jru.

Fold, sem ttarr kva:

244. Fold verr folk-Baldr,
fr m konungr sv,
rnu reifir leifr,
er framr Sva gramr.

Grund, sem Hallfrer kva:

245. Grund liggr und br bundin
brei holmfjturs leiar,
heinlands hoddum grandar
Hr, eitrsvlum nari.

Haur, sem Einarr kva:

246. Verja haur me hjrvi
hart dglinga bjartra
hjalmr springr oft fyr olmri
egghr, framir seggir.

Land, sem rr Kolbeinsson kva:

247. En eft vg fr Veigu,
vant er or at styr, noran
land ea lengra stundu
lagisk sur til Aga.

L, sem ttarr kva:

248. Heltu, ar er hrafn n svalta,
hvatrr ertu, li
gnar stafr, fyr jfrum,
gr, tveimr, vi kyn beima.

Hlyn, sem kva Vlu-Steinn:

249. Man ek at, er jr vi ora
endr myrk Danar sendi
grnnar grfnum munni
gein Hlynjar beina.

Frn, sem kva lfr Uggason:

250. En stirinull stari
storar leggs fyr bori
frns folka reyni
frnleitr ok bls eitri.

Fjrgyn, sem hr er kveit:

251. rgildi var ek, Eldis,
ls Fjrgynjar, mla,
dyggr, s heir ok hreggi,
hrynbes, ar steja.


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