51. Of the Vlsungar

A daughter named slaug lived after young Sigurdr; she was reared with Heimir in Hlymdalir, and great houses are sprung from her. It is said that Sigmundr, Vlsungr's son, was so strong that he could drink venom and receive no hurt; and Sinfjtli his son and Sigurdr were so hard-skinned that no venom from without could harm them: wherefore Bragi the Skald has sung thus:

When the wriggling Serpent
Of the Vlsung's Drink hung writhing
On the hook of the Foeman
Of Hill-Giants' kindred.

Most skalds have made verses and divers short tales from these sagas. Bragi the Old wrote of the fall of Srli and Hamdir in that song of praise which he composed on Ragnarr Lodbrk:

[Once Jrmunrekkr awakened
To an dream, 'mid the princes
Blood-stained, while swords were swirling:
A brawl burst in the dwelling
Of Randvr's royal kinsman,
When the raven-swarthy
Brothers of Erpr took vengeance
For all the bitter sorrows.

The bloody dew of corpses,
O'er the king's couch streaming,
Fell on the floor where, severed,
Feet and hands blood-dripping
Were seen; in the ale-cups' fountain
He fell headlong, gore-blended:
On the Shield, Leaf of the Bushes
Of Leifi's Land, 't is painted.

There stood the shielded swordsmen,
Steel biting not, surrounding
The king's couch; and the brethren
Hamdir and Srli quickly
To the earth were beaten
By the prince's order,
To the Bride of Odin
With hard stones were battered.

The swirling weapons' Urger
Bade Gjki's race be smitten
Sore, who from life were eager
To ravish Svanhildr's lover;
And all pay Jnakr's offspring
With the fair-piercing weapon,
The render of blue birnies,
With bitter thrusts and edges.

I see the heroes' slaughter
On the fair shield-rim's surface;
Ragnarr gave me the Ship-Moon
With many tales marked on it.]

52. Of King Fri and the mill Grtti

Why is gold called Frdi's Meal? This is the tale thereof: One of Odin's sons, named Skjldr,--from whom the Skjldungs are come,--had his abode and ruled in the realm which now is called Denmark, but then was known as Gotland. Skjldr's son, who ruled the land after him, was named Fridleifr. Fridleifr's son was Frdi: he succeeded to the kingdom after his father, in the time when Augustus Caesar imposed peace on all the world; at that time Christ was born. But because Frdi was mightiest of all kings in the Northern lands, the peace was called by his name wherever the Danish tongue was spoken; and men call it the Peace of Frdi. No man injured any other, even though he met face to face his father's slayer or his brother's, loose or bound. Neither was there any thief nor robber then, so that a gold ring lay long on Jalangr's Heath. King Frdi went to a feast in Sweden at the court of the king who was called Fjlnir, and there he bought two maid-servants, Fenja and Menja: they were huge and strong. In that time two mill-stones were found in Denmark, so great that no one was so strong that he could turn them: the nature of the mill was such that whatsoever he who turned asked for, was ground out by the mill-stones. This mill was called Grtti. He who gave King Frdi the mill was named Hengikjptr. King Frdi had the maid-servants led to the mill, and bade them grind gold; and they did so. First they ground gold and, peace and happiness for Frdi; then he would grant them rest or sleep no longer than the cuckoo held its peace or a song might be sung. It is said that they sang the song which is called the Lay of Grtti, and this is its beginning:

Now are we come
To the king's house,
The two fore-knowing,
Fenja and Menja:
These are with Frdi
Son of Fridleifr,
The Mighty Maidens,
As maid-thralls held.

And before they ceased their singing, they ground out a host against Frdi, so that the sea-king called Msingr came there that same night and slew Frdi, taking much plunder. Then the Peace of Frdi was ended. Msingr took Grtti with him, and Fenja and Menja also, and bade them grind salt. And at midnight they asked whether Msingr were not weary of salt. He bade them grind longer. They had ground but a little while, when down sank the ship; and from that time there has been a whirlpool the sea where the water falls through the hole in the mill-stone. It was then that the sea became salt.

["The lay of Grtti:

They to the flour-mill
Were led, those maidens,
And bidden tirelessly
To turn the gray mill-stone:
He promised to neither
Peace nor surcease
Till he had heard
The handmaids' singing.

They chanted the song
Of the ceaseless mill-stone:
'Lay we the bins right,
Lift we the stones!'
He urged the maidens
To grind on ever.

They sung and slung
The whirling stone
Till the men of Frdi
For the most part slept;
Then spake Menja,
To the mill coming:

'Wealth grind we for Frdi,
We grind it in plenty,
Fullness of fee
At the mill of fortune:
Let him sit on riches
And sleep on down;
Let him wake in weal:
Then well 't is ground.

Here may no one
Harm another,
Contrive evil,
Nor cast wiles for slaying,
Nor slaughter any
With sword well sharpened,
Though his brother's slayer
In bonds he find.'

But he spake no word
Save only this:
'Sleep ye no longer
Than the hall-cuckoo's silence,
Nor longer than so,
While one song is sung.'

'Thou wast not, Frdi,
Full in wisdom,
Thou friend of men,
When thou boughtest the maidens:
Didst choose for strength
And outward seeming;
But of their kindred
Didst not inquire.

'Hardy was Hrungnir,
And his father;
Yet was Thjazi
Than they more mighty:
Idi and Aurnir
Of us twain are kinsmen,--
Brothers of Hill-Giants,
Of them were we born.

Grtti had not come
From the gray mountain,
Nor the hard boulder
From the earth's bosom,
Nor thus would grind
The Hill-Giants' maiden,
If any had known
The news of her.

'We nine winters
Were playmates together,
Mighty of stature,
'Neath the earth's surface,
The maids had part
In mighty works:
Ourselves we moved
Mighty rocks from their place.

'We rolled the rock
O'er the Giants' roof-stead,
So that the ground,
Quaking, gave before us;

So slung we
The whirling stone,
The mighty boulder,
Till men took it.

'And soon after
In Sweden's realm,
We twain fore-knowing
Strode to the fighting;
Bears we hunted,
And shields we broke;
We strode through
The gray-mailed spear-host.

We cast down a king,
We crowned another;
To Gotthormr good
We gave assistance;
No quiet was there
Ere Kni fell.

'This course we held
Those years continuous,
That we were known
For warriors mighty;
There with sharp spears
Wounds we scored,
Let blood from wounds,
And reddened the brand.

'Now are we come
To the king's abode
Of mercy bereft
And held as bond-maids;
Clay eats our foot-soles,
Cold chills us above;
We turn the Peace-Grinder:
'T is gloomy at Frdi's.

'Hands must rest,
The stone must halt;
Enough have I turned,
My toil ceases:
Now may the hands
Have no remission
Till Frdi hold
The meal ground fully.

'The hands should hold
The hard shafts,
The weapons gore-stained,--
Wake thou, Frdi!
Wake thou, Frdi,
If thou wouldst hearken
To the songs of us twain
And to ancient stories.

'Fire I see burning
East of the burg,
War-tidings waken,
A beacon of warning:
A host shall come
Hither, with swiftness,
And fire the dwellings
Above King Frdi.

'Thou shalt not hold
The stead of Hleidr,
The red gold rings
Nor the gods' holy altar;
We grasp the handle,
Maiden, more hardly,--
We were not warmer
In the wound-gore of corpses.

'My father's maid
Mightily ground
For she saw the feyness
Of men full many;
The sturdy posts
From the flour-box started,
Made staunch with iron.
Grind we yet swifter.

'Grind we yet swifter!
The son of Yrsa,
Hlfdanr's kinsman,
Shall come with vengeance
On Frdi's head:
Him shall men call
Yrsa's son and brother.
We both know that.'

The maidens ground,
Their might they tested,
Young and fresh
In giant-frenzy:
The bin-poles trembled,
And burst the flour-box;
In sunder burst
The heavy boulder.

And the sturdy bride
Of Hill-Giants spake:
'We have ground, O Frdi!
Soon we cease from grinding;
The women have labored
O'er long at the grist.'

Thus sang Einarr Sklason:

I have heard that Frdi's hand-maids
Ground in the mill full gladly
The Serpent's Couch; with gold-meal
The king lets peace be broken:
The fair cheeks of my axe-head,
Fitted with maple, show forth
Fenja's Grist; exalted
Is the skald with the good king's riches.

So sang Egill:

Glad are full many men
In Frdi's meal.]

53. Of Hrlfr Kraki and Vgg

Why is gold called Kraki's Seed? In Denmark there was a king called Hrlfr Kraki: he was most renowned of all ancient kings for munificence, valor, and graciousness. One evidence of his graciousness which is often brought into stories is this: A little lad and poor, Vggr by name, came into the hall of King Hrlfr. At that time the king was young, and of slender stature. Vggr came into his presence and looked up at him; and the king said: 'What wouldst thou say, lad, for thou lookest at me?' Vggr answered: 'When I was at home, I heard say that Hrlfr the king at Hleidr was the greatest man in the northern lands; but now there sitteth in the high seat a little pole, and he is called King.' Then the king made answer: 'Thou, boy, hast given me a name, so that I shall be called Hrlfr the Pole (Kraki); and it is the custom that the giving of a name be accompanied by a gift. Now I see that with the name which thou has fastened on me, thou hast no gift such as would be acceptable to me, wherefore he that has wherewith to give shall give to the other.' And he took from his hand a gold ring and gave it to him. Then Vggr said: 'Above all kings be thou most blessed of givers! Now I swear an oath that I shall be that man's slayer who slays thee.' Then spake the king, laughing loudly: 'Vggr is pleased with a small thing.'

54. Of Hrlfr Kraki and King Ails

"Another example is the tale told concerning the valor of Hrlfr Kraki: That king whom men call Adils ruled over Uppsala; he had to wife Yrsa, mother of Hrlfr Kraki. He was at strife with the king who ruled over Norway, whose name was Ali; the two joined battle on the ice of the lake called Vaeni. King Adils sent an embassy to Hrlfr Kraki, his stepson, praying him to come to his aid, and promised wages to all his host so long as they should be away; King Hrlfr himself should have three precious gifts, whatsoever three he might choose from all Sweden. {p. 171} King Hrlfr could not make the journey in person, owing to the strife in which he was engaged with the Saxons; but he sent to Adils his twelve berserks: Bdvar-Bjarki was there for one, and Hjalti the Stout-Hearted, Hvtserkr the Stern, Vttr Vseti, and the brethren Svipdagr and Beigudr. In that battle King li fell, and the great part of his host with him; and King Adils took from him in death the helm Battle-Swine and his horse Raven. Then the berserks of Hrlfr Kraki demanded for their hire three pounds of gold for each man of them; and in addition they required that they might bear to Hrlfr Kraki those gifts of price which they had chosen for him: which were the Helm Battle-Boar and the birnie Finn's Heritage,--on neither of which iron would take hold,--and the gold ring which was called Pig of the Swedes, which Adils' forefathers had had. But the king denied them all these things, nor did he so much as pay their hire: the berserks went away ill-pleased with their share, and told the state of things to Hrlfr Kraki.

"Straightway he begin his journey to Uppsala; and when he had brought his ships into the river Fri, he rode at once to Uppsala, and his twelve berserks with him, all without safe-conduct. Yrsa, his mother, welcomed him and led him to lodgings, but not to the king's hall: fires were made there before them, and ale was given them to drink. Then men of King Adils came in and heaped firewood onto the fire, and made it so great that the clothes were burnt off Hrlfr and his men. And the fellows spake: 'Is it true that Hrlfr Kraki and his berserks shun neither fire nor iron?' Then Hrlfr Kraki leapt up, and all they that were with him; and he said:

'Add we to the fire
In Adils' dwelling!'

took his shield and cast it onto the fire, and leapt over the flames, while the shield burnt; and he spake again:

'He flees not the flames
Who o'er the fire leapeth!'

Even so did his men, one after another; and they laid hands on those fellows who had heaped up the fire, and cast them into the flames. Then Yrsa came and gave Hrlfr Kraki a deer's horn full of gold, the ring Pig of the Swedes being with the gold; and she bade them ride away to the host. They vaulted onto their horses and rode down into the Plain of the Fri; and soon they saw King Adils riding after them with his host all in armor, hoping to slay them. Then Hrlfr Kraki plunged his right hand down into the horn, grasped the gold, and strewed it all about the road. When the Swedes saw that, they leapt down out of their saddles, and each took up as much as he could lay hold of; but King Adils bade them ride on, and himself rode furiously . His horse was called Slngvir, swiftest of all horses. Then Hrlfr Kraki saw that King Adils was drawing close up to him, took the ring, Pig of the Swedes, and threw it toward him, and bade him receive it as a gift. King Adils rode at the ring and thrust at it with his spear-point, and let it slide down over the shaft-socket. Then Hrlfr Kraki turned back and saw how he bent down, and spake: 'Now I have made him who is mightiest of Swedes stoop as a swine stoops.' Thus they parted. For this cause gold is called Seed of Kraki or of Fri's Plain. Thus sang Eyvindr Skald-Despoiler:

God of the blade of battle,
We bear through Hkon's life-days
The Seed of Fri's valley
On our arms, where sits the falcon.

Even as Thjdlfr sang:

The king sows the bright seed-corn
Of knuckle-splendid gold rings,
With the crop of Yrsa's offspring,
In his company's glad hand-grasp;
The guileless 'Land-Director
With Kraki's gleaming barley
Sprinkles my arms, the flesh-grown
Seat of the hooded falcon.

55. Of King Hlgi

It is said that the king called Hlgi, from whom Hlogaland is named, was the father of Thorgerdr Hlgabrdr; sacrifice was made to both of them, and a cairn was raised over Hlgi: one layer of gold or silver (that was the sacrificial money), and another layer of mould and stones. Thus sang Skli Thorsteinsson:

When I reddened Reifnir's Roof-Bane,
The ravening sword, for wealth's sake
At Svldr, I heaped with gold rings
Warlike Hlgi's cairn-thatch.

56. Further on kennings for gold

In the ancient Bjarkaml many terms for gold are told: it says there:

The king most gift-gracious
His guardsmen enriched
With Fenja's Labor,
With Ffnir's Midgard,
Glasir's bright Needles,
Grani's fair Burden,
Draupnir's dear dripping,
Down of Grafvitnir.

The free-handed Lord gave,
The heroes accepted,
Sif's firm-grown tresses,
Ice of the bow-force,
Otter-gild unwilling,
Weeping of Mardll,
Fire-flame of run,
Idi's fine Speeches.

The warrior rejoiced;
We walked in fair garments,
In Thjazi's counsels
The people's host-countless,
In the Rhine's red metal,
Wrangling of Niflungs,
The leader war-daring,
Warded Baldr not.

Gold is metaphorically termed Fire of the Hand, or of the Limb, or of the Leg, because it is red; but silver is called Snow, or Ice, or Hoar-Frost, because it is white. In like manner, gold or silver may be periphrased in metaphors of purse, or crucible, or lather, and both silver and gold may be called Hand-Stone, or Necklace, of any man who was wont to have a necklace. Necklaces and rings are both silver and gold, if no other distinction is raised. As Thorleikr the Fair sang:

The kindly Prince the Load casts
Of Crucibles on the Hawk-Seats
Of thanes, the wrists embellished,--
Gives Embers of the Arm-joint.

And as Einarr Tinkling-Scale sang:

The land-strong King of Lurid
Breaks the golden Limb-Brands;
I think the Prince of Warriors
Lacks not the Rhine's bright Pebbles.

Thus sang Einarr Sklason:

The Purse-Snow and the Sea-Fire
Lie on both sides of the axe-head
Blood-spilling; 't is my office
To praise our foemen's Scather.

And as he sang further:

The Sea-Glow each day standeth
O'er the Crucible's white Snow-Drift,
And the shield, ships' cheeks protecting,
Shelters a heart most lavish;
Ne'er can one melt the silver
Flagon-Snow in the Fire-Flame
Of the Eel's Stream-Road; the Feller
Of Hosts all feats performeth.

Here gold is called Fire of the Eel's Stream-Road; and silver, Snow of Flagons.

Thus sang Thrdr Mri's Skald:

The glad Giver of the Hand-Waste
Of the Gold-Minisher perceiveth
That the Hermdr of the Snake's Lair
Hath had a lordly father.

57. Men referred to in relation to gold

"Man is called Breaker of Gold, even as ttarr the Swarthy sang:

I needs must use the Breaker
Of the Battle-Glow of good men;
Here is the watch war-doughty
Of the Wise King assembled.

Or Gold-Sender, as Einarr Tinkling-Scale sang:

The Sender of Gold permitteth
The silent earth to hearken
To song; his gifts I gather:
The prince his young men gladdens.

Gold-Caster, as Thorleikr sang:

Gold-Caster makes loyal to him
His guard with kingly armor.

Gold's Adversary, as sang Thorvaldr Blending-Skald:

The gold's foe Hot Coals casteth
Of the Arm; the king gives red wealth;

The vile folk's Desolator
Dispenseth the Freight of Grani.

Gold-Towerer, as is written here:

The Gold-Towerer in friendship
I got, and of the Warrior,
Son of the glowing War-Blade,
I make a song of praise.

58. Women referred to in relation to gold

Woman is periphrased in metaphors of gold, being called Willow or Giver of Gold, as Hallarsteinn sang:

He who casts the Amber
Of Vidblindi's Boar's cool, salt Drink,
Long will recall the Willow
Of the Reed-Snake's golden River.

Here the whale is called Boar of Vidblindi; this Vidblindi was a giant who drew whales out of the sea like fishes. The Drink of Whales is the sea; Amber of the Sea is gold; woman is the Willow, or Dealer, of that gold which she gives; and the willow is a tree. Therefore, as is already shown, woman is periphrased with all manner of feminine tree-names: she is also called User of that which she gives; and the word for 'user' also signifies a log, the tree which falls in the forest.

Thus sang Gunnlaugr Serpent's-Tongue:

That dame was born to stir strife
Among the sons of men-folk;
The War-Bush caused that; madly
I yearned to have the Wealth-Log.

Woman is called Forest; so sang Hallarsteinn:

With the well-trained Plane of Singing,
The tongue, I have planed, my Lady,
Dame of the First Song's ale-vats,
Forest fair of Flagons.

Fagot, as Steinn sang:

Thou shalt, O fresh Sif-Tender
Of the Flood's gold Fire, like other
Fagots of Hjadnings' gravel,
Break with thy good fortune.

Prop, as Ormr Steinthrsson sang:

The Prop of Stone was clothd
In garments clean and seemly:
A new cloak did the hero
Cast o'er the Mead's bright Valkyr.

Post, as Steinarr sang:

All my dreams of the gracious Goddess
Of the bracelet-girded soft arms
Have lied to me; the Stream-Moon's
Unsteadfast Prop beguiled me.

Birch, as Ormr sang:

For a mark of the Birch
Of the bright hollow ring,
The palm-flame, I laid
On the dwarf-flagon, my song.

Oak, even as stands here:

The fair shaped Oak of Riches
Stands, our mirth forestalling.

Linden, even as is written here:

O dreadful, towering Elm-Tree
Of the dinning shower of weapons,
Our courage shall not lessen:
So bade the Linen's Linden.

59. Men referred to as trees

Man is periphrased in tree-metaphors, as we have written before; he is called Rowan, or Tester, of Weapons, or of Combats, of Expeditions and of Deeds, of Ships, and of all that which he wields and tests; thus sang lfr Uggason:

But the flashing-eyed stiff Edge-Rope
Of the Earth stared past the gunwale
At the Rowan-Tree of the people
Of Stone, the Giant-Tester.

Tree and Beam, as Kormkr sang:

The Beam of the murdering Sword-Twig
Is taller than are many
In the Din of Darts; the sword wins.
The land for dauntless Sigurdr.

Grove, as sang Hallfredr Troublous-Skald:

The Mighty Grove and Faithful
Of the Shield-Murderer, budded
With hair, stands in the Eastlands
Safe with Ullr's Ash-Warriors.

Here he is also called Ash.

Box, as Arnrr sang:

The Box of Ships bade the Rygir
Bring the shields together
At early dusk; through the spear-rain
Of strife-clouds held the autumn night.

Ash, as Refr sang:

The Strife-Lord, gracious Giver,
Sought the Maid's bed gold-sprinkled;
The Ash of Odin's War-Sleet
Won the estate of manhood.

Maple, as here:

Hail, Maple of the Ice-Lumps
Of the Hand!' So spake the Birnie.

Tree, as Refr sang:

Since I have appointed
To proffer Odin's Breast-Sea,
The War-God's Verse, to Thorsteinn;
The Tree of Swords so wills it.

Staff, as ttarr sang:

Thou, fierce War-Staff, maintainedst
Maugre two kings, thy borders

With heroes' kin, where the ravens
Starved not; keen-hearted art thou.

Thorn, as Arnrr sang:

He gathered, the young Wealth-Thorn,
Many great heaps of corpses
For the eagles, and his henchmen
Guided and helped the hero.

60. Kennings for battle

How should battle be periphrased? By calling it Storm of Weapons or of Sheltering Shields, or of Odin or the Valkyrs, or of Host-Kings; and Din and Clashing.

Thus sang Hornklofi:

The king hath held a Spear-Storm
With heroes, where the eagles
Screamed at the Din of Skgul;
The red wounds spat out blood.

Thus sang Eyvindr:

And that hero
At Har's Tempest
Wore a sark
Of gray wolf-skin.

Thus sang Bersi:

In earlier days I seemed not
To Gunn's War-Bushes useful
In the Sleet of Hlkk, when younger
We were: so 't is said.

Thus sang Einarr:

The stark prince lets Hildr's Shield-Sails
Take the sternest crashing Storm-Wind
Of the Valkyr, where hail of bow-strings
Drives; the sword-blade hammers.

As Einarr Tinkling-Scale sang:

The mail-sarks of the warriors,
Firm-woven, did not shelter
The seemly youths 'gainst Hgni's
Showers of Hkon's onset.

Even as here:

They set the Point-Net's edge-band
Against the Point-Crash-Urger.

And again:

'Neath eagles' claws the king's foes
Sank at the Clash of Gndul.


51. Fr Vlsungum.

Eftir Sigur svein lifi dttir, er slaug ht, er fdd var at Heimis Hlymdlum, ok eru aan ttir komnar strar. Sv er sagt, at Sigmundr Vlsungsson var sv mttugr, at hann drakk eitr ok sakai ekki, en Sinfjtli, sonr hans, ok Sigurr vru sv harir hna, at sakai ekki eitr, at tan kmi bera. v hefir Bragi skld sv kveit:

114. er forns Litar flotna
fangboa ngli
hrkkvill of hrokkinn
hekk Vlsunga drekku.

Eftir essum sgum hafa flest skld ort ok tekit msa ttu. Bragi inn gamli orti um fall Srla ok Hamis drpu eiri, er hann orti um Ragnar lobrk.

115. Kntti er vi illan
Jrmunrekkr at vakna
me dreyrfar drttir
draum svera flaumi;
rsta var ranni
Raudvs hfunija,
er hrafnblir hefnu
harma Erps of barmar.

116. Flaut of set vi sveita
sknar alfs golfi
hrva dgg, ar er hggnar
hendr sem ftr of kenndusk;
fell bli blandinn
brunn lskla, runna
at er Leifa landa
laufi ftt, at hfi.

117. ar sv at geru gyran
golfhlkvis s fylkis
segls naglfara siglur
saums andvanar standa;
uru snemmst ok srli
samra eir Hamir
hrum herimlum
Hergauts vinu barir.

118. Mjk lt stla stkkvir
styja Gjka nija
flaums, er fjrvi nma
Foglhildar mun vildu,
ok blserkjar birkis,
ball, fagrgtu allir,
ennihgg ok eggjar
Jnakrs sonum launa.

119. at sk fall fgrum
flotna randar botni.
Rs gafumk reiar mna
Ragnarr ok fjl sagna.

52. Fr Fra konungi ok kverninni Grtta.

Hv er gull kallat mjl Fra? Til ess er saga sj, at Skjldr ht sonr ins, er Skjldungar eru fr komnir. Hann hafi atsetu ok r lndum, ar sem n er kllu Danmrk, en var kallat Gotland. Skjldr tti ann son, er Frileifr ht, er lndum r eftir hann. Sonr Frileifs ht Fri. Mann tk konungdm eftir fur sinn ann t, er gstus keisari lagi fri of heim allan. var Kristr borinn. En fyrir v at Fri var allra konunga rkastr Norlndum, var honum kenndr fririnn um alla danska tungu, ok kalla menn a Frafri. Engi mar grandai rum, tt hann hitti fyrir sr furbana ea brurbana lausan ea bundinn. var ok engi jfr ea rnsmar, sv at gullhringr einn l Jalangrsheii lengi.

Fri konungr stti heimbo Svj til ess konungs, er Fjlnir er nefndr. keypti hann ambttir tvr, er htu Fenja ok Menja. r vru miklar ok sterkar.

ann tma fundust Danmrku kvernsteinar tveir sv miklir, at engi var sv sterkr, at dregit gti. En s nttra fylgi kvernunum, at at mlst kverninni, sem s mlti fyrir, er ml. S kvern ht Grtti. Hengikjftr er s nefndr, er Fra konungi gaf kvernina.

Fri konungr lt leia ambttirnar til kvernarinnar ok ba r mala gull, ok sv geru r, mlu fyrst gull ok fri ok slu Fra. gaf hann eim eigi lengri hvl ea svefn en gaukrinn agi ea hlj mtti kvea. at er sagt, at r kvi lj au, er kallat er Grttasngr, ok er etta upphaf at:

120. N erum komnar
til konungs hsa
framvsar tvr,
Fenja ok Menja;
r eru at Fra
Frileifs sonar
mttkar meyjar
at mani hafar.

Ok r ltti kvinu, mlu r her at Fra, sv at eiri ntt kom ar s skonungr, er Msingr ht, ok drap Fra, tk ar herfang mikit. lagist Frafrir. Msingr hafi me sr Grtta ok sv Fenju ok Menju ok ba r mala salt. Ok at miri ntt spuru r, ef eigi leiddist Msingi salt. Hann ba r mala lengr. r mlu litla hr, r nir skk skipit, ok var ar eftir svelgr hafinu, er srinn fellr kvernaraugat. var sr saltr.

53. Fr Hrlfi kraka ok Vgg

Hv er gull kallat s Kraka? Konungr einn Danmrk er nefndr Hrlfr kraki. Hann var gtastr fornkonunga fyrst af mildi ok frknleik ok ltillti. at er eitt mark um ltillti hans, er mjk er frt frsagnir, at einn ltill sveinn ok ftkr er nefndr Vggr. Hann kom hll Hrlfs konungs. var konungrinn ungr at aldri ok grannligr vxt. gekk Vggr fyrir hann ok s upp hann.

mlti konungr: "Hvat viltu mla, sveinn, er sr mik?"

Vggr segir: " er ek var heima, heyrak sagt, at Hrlfr konungr at Hleiru var mestr mar Norrlndum, en n sitr hr hsti kraki einn ltill, ok kalli r hann konung."

svarar konungr: ", sveinn, hefir gefit mr nafn, at ek skal heita Hrlfr kraki, en at er ttt, at gjf skal fylgja nafnfesti. N s ek ik enga gjf hafa til at gefa mr at nafnfesti, er mr s gilig. N skal s gefa rum, er til hefir," - tk gullhring af hendi sr ok gaf honum.

mlti Vggr: "Gef allra konunga heilastr, ok ess strengi ek heit at vera ess manns bani, er inn banamar verr."

mlti konungr ok hl vi: "Litlu verr Vggr feginn."

54. Fr Hrlfi hraka ok Ailsi konungi.

Annat mark var at sagt fr Hrlfi kraka um frknleik hans, at s konungr r fyrir Uppslum, er Ails ht. Hann tti Yrsu, mur Hrlfs kraka. Hann hafi stt vi ann konung, er r fyrir Nregi, er li ht. eir stefndu orrostu milli sn si vatns ess, er Vni heitir. Ails konungr sendi bo Hrlfi kraka, mgi snum, at hann kmi til liveizlu vi hann, ok ht mla llum her hans, mean eir vri ferinni, en konungr sjlfr skyldi eignast rj kostgripi, er hann kri af Svj. Hrlfr konungr mtti eigi fara fyrir frii eim, er hann tti vi Saxa, en sendi hann Ailsi berserki sna tlf. ar var einn Bvarr bjarki ok Hjalti hugpri, Hvtserkr hvati, Vttr, Vseti, eir brr Svipdagr ok Beigur. eiri orrostu fll li konungr ok mikill hluti lis hans. tk Ails konungr af honum dauum hjlminn Hildisvn ok hest hans Hrafn.

beiddust eir berserkir Hrlfs kraka at taka mla sinn, rj pund gulls hverr eira, ok um fram beiddust eir at flytja Hrlfi kraka kostgripi , er eir kuru til handa honum. at var hjlmrinn Hildigltr ok brynjan Finnsleif, er hvrigu festi jrn, ok gullhringr s, er kallar var Svagrss, er tt hfu langfegar Ails. En konungr varnai allra gripanna, ok eigi heldr galt hann mlann. Fru berserkir braut ok unu illa snum hlut, sgu sv bit Hrlfi kraka.

Ok jafnskjtt byrjai hann fer sna til Uppsala, ok er hann kom skipum snum na Fri, rei hann til Uppsala, ok me honum tlf berserkir hans, allr grialausir. Yrsa, mir hans, fagnai honum ok fylgi honum til herbergis ok eigi til konungs hallar. Vru gervir eldar fyrir eim ok gefit l at drekka.

komu menn Ails konungs inn ok bru sk eldinn ok geru sv mikinn, at kli brunnu af eim Hrlfi, ok mltu: "Er at satt, at Hrlfr kraki ok berserkir hans flja hvrki eld n jrn?"

hljp Hrlfr kraki upp ok allir eir. mlti hann:

121. "Aukum enn elda
at Ails hsum,"

tk skjld sinn ok kastai eldinn ok hljp yfir eldinn, mean skjldrinn brann, ok mlti enn:

122. "Flra s eld
er yfir hleypr."

Sv fr hverr at rum hans manna, tku ok, er eldinn hfu aukit, ok kstuu eldinn. kom Yrsa ok fekk Hrlfi kraka drshorn, fullt af gulli, ok ar me hringinn Svagrs ok ba braut ra til lisins. eir hljpu hesta sna ok ra ofan Frisvllu. s eir, at Ails konungr rei eftir eim me her sinn alvpnaan ok vill drepa . tk Hrlfr kraki hgri hendi gullit ofan hornit ok sri allt um gtuna. En er Svar sj at, hlaupa eir r slunum, ok tk hverr slkt er fekk, en Ails konungr ba ra ok rei sjlfr kafliga. Slngvir ht hestr hans, allra hesta skjtastr. s Hrlfr kraki, at Ails konungr rei nr honum, tk hringinn Svagrs ok kastai til hans ok ba hann iggja at gjf. Ails konungr rei at hringinum ok tk til me spjtsoddinum ok renndi upp falinn.

veik Hrlfr kraki aftr ok s, er hann laut nir. mlti hann: "Svnbeygt hefi ek n ann, er rkastr er me Svum." Sv skilust eir. Af essi sk er gull kallat s Kraka ea Frisvalla. Sv kva Eyvindr skldaspillir:

123. Brum, Ullr, of alla,
munlauks, hauka
fjllum Frisvalla
fr Hkunar vi.

Sv sem jlfr kva:

124. r sr Yrsu burar
inndrtt jfurr sinni
bjartplgaan bauga
brattakr vlu-spakra.
Eyss landreki ljsu
lastvarr Kraka barri
hlmyldar holdi,
hauks klfur mr sjalfum.

55. Fr Hlga konungi.

Sv er sagt, at konungr s, er Hlgi er nefndr, er Hlogaland er vi kennt, var fair orgerar Hlgabrar. au vru bi bltu, ok var haugr Hlga kastar, nnur fl af gulli ea silfri - at var bltfit - en nnur fl af moldu ok grjti. Sv kva Skli orsteinsson:

125. er rfrvita Reifnis
rau ek fyr Svl til auar,
herfylgins bar ek Hlga
haugk saman baugum.

56. Enn fr gullskenningum.

Bjarkarmlum inum fornum eru tl mrg gullsheiti. Sv segir ar:

126. Gramr inn gjflasti
gddi hir sna
Fenju forverki,
Ffnis Migari,
Glasis glbarri,
Grana fagrbyri,
Draupnis drsveita,
dni Grafvitnis.

127. tti rr hilmir,
aldir vi tku,
Sifjar svarfestum,
svelli dalnauar,
tregum otrsgjldum,
trum Mardallar,
eldi runar,
Ija glysmlum.

128. Gladdi gunnveitir,
gengum fagrbnir,
jaza ingskilum
jir hermargar,
Rnar raumalmi,
rgi Niflunga,
vsi inn vgdjarfi.
Vari hann Baldr eygi.

Gull er kallat kenningum eldr handar ea lis ea leggjar, v at at er rautt, en silfr snr ea svell ea hla, v at at er hvtt. Me sama htti skal ok kenna gull ea silfr til sjs ea diguls ea lauar, en hvrttveggja silfr ok gull m vera grjt handar ea hlsgjr nkkurs ess manns, er ttt var at hafa men. Men ok hringar eru bi silfr ok gull, ef eigi er annan veg greint. Sem kva orleikr fagri:

129. Kastar gramr glstar
gegn valstvar egnum,
ungr vsi gefr eisu
armleggs, digulfarmi.

Ok sem kva Einarr sklaglamm:

130. Librndum kn Lundar
landfrkn jfurr granda.
Hykka ek rsis rekka
Rnar grjt of rjta.

Sv kva Einarr Sklason:

131. Bleisu liggr bi
bjargs tveim megin geima
sjs, ek skkva stri,
snr ok eldr, at mra.

Ok enn sem hann kva:

132. Dgr rymr hvert, en hjarta
hlrskildir rr mildu
Heita blakks, of hvtum
hafleygr digulskafli.
Aldri m fyr eldi
ls hrynbrautar skla,
ll vir folka fellir
framri sn bra.

Hr er gull kallat eldr ls hrynbrautar, en silfr snr sklanna. Sv kva rr Mraskld:

133. Sr seima rri,
sigis ltrs at tti,
hrauns glasendir handa,
Hermr fur gan.

57. Mar kenndr til gulls.

Mar er kallar brjtr gullsins, sv sem kva ttarr svarti:

134. Gmennis arf ek gunnar
gl-brjtanda at njta.
Hr er alnennin inni
inndrtt me gram svinnum.

Ea gullsendir, sem kva Einarr sklaglamm:

135. Gullsendir ltr grundar,
glaar engill her drengja,
hans mti kn ek hljta,
hljt Yggs mjaar njta.

Gullvrpur, sem kva orleikr:

136. Hir vir grams me gerum
gollvrpur sr holla.

Gullstrir, sem kva orvaldr blnduskld:

137. Gullstrir verpr glum,
gefr au konungr rauan,
jar bregr eyir,
armleggs, Grana farmi.

Gullskati, sem hr er:

138. Gat ek gullskata;
gr er leygs of br
gtu gunnvita
grps tgdrpa.

58. Kona kennd til gulls.

Kona er kennd til gulls, kllu selja gulls, sem kva Hallar-Steinn:

139. Svalteigar mun selju
salts Viblinda galtar
rafkastandi rastar
reyrvengs muna lengi.

Hr er kallat hvalir Viblinda geltir. Hann var jtunn ok dr hvali hafi t sem fiska. Teigr hvala er sr, rf svar er gull. Kona er selja gulls ess, er hon gefr, ok samheiti vi selju er tr, sem fyrr er ritat, at kona er kennd vi alls konar trjheiti kvenkennd. Hon er ok lg kllu ess, er hon gefr. Lg heitir ok tr at, er fellr skgi. Sv kva Gunnlaugr ormstunga:

140. Alin var rgr at rgi,
runnr olli v gunnar,
lg var ek aus at eiga
gjarn, fira brnum.

Kona er kllu mrk. Sv kva Hallar-Steinn:

141. Ek hefi ar lokri
lstafna Bil skafna,
vn mrk skla, verki
vandr stef-knarrar branda.

Tra, enn sem kva Steinn:

142. munt, frs, sem fleiri,
fls hirisif, trur,
grnn, vi gfu inni
grjts Hjaninga brjtask.

Skora, sv kva Ormr Steinrsson:

143. Skora var ft fr
fjarbeins afar hrein.
Nri slng nadd-Freyr
nisting of mjaar Hrist.

Sto, sem Steinarr kva:

144. Mens hafa mildrar Synjar
mjkstalls logit allir,
sj hfumk veltisto stilltan
straumtungls, at mr draumar.

Bjrk, enn sem Ormr kva:

145. v at hols hrynbls
hramma, ats ek berk fram,
Billings burar full
bjarkar hefi ek lagit mark.

Eik, sv sem hr er:

146. Aura stendr fyr rum
eik fagrbin leiki.

Lind, sv sem hr er:

147. gnrakkr, skalat okkur,
almr dynskrar malma,
sv bau lind landi
lns, hugrekki dvna.

59. Mar kenndr til via.

Mar er kenndr til via, sem fyrr er ritat, kallar reynir vpna ea vga, fera ok athafnar, skipa ok alls ess, er hann rr ok reynir. Sv kva lfr Uggason:

148. En stirinull stari
storar leggs fyr bori
frns folka reyni
frnleitr ok bls eitri.

Vir ok meir, sem kva Kormkr:

149. Meir er mrgum ri
morteins dyn fleina;
hjrr fr hildibrrum
hjarl Siguri jarli.

Lundr, sv kva Hallfrer vandraskld:

150. Askollum stendr Ullar
austr at miklu trausti
rkilundr inn rki
randfrs brumar hri.

Hr er ok ollr nefndr. Bss, sv kva Arnrr:

151. Rkr ndurt ba randir
reggbss saman leggja,
rgskja helt, Rygja,
regni haustntt gegnum.

Askr, sem Refr kva:

152. Gekk gulli stokkna
gjfrfr, Hars drfu
askr vir rinn roska,
as-Freyr sing meyjar.

Hlynr, sem hr er:

153. Heill kom , handar svella
hlynr kvaddi sv brynju.

Brr, sem Refr kva:

154. Alls bgis bja,
brr rr til ess hjrva,
gnstvar hefi ek gi
einrit rsteini.

Stafr, sem ttarr kva:

155. Heltu, ar er hrafn n svalta,
hvatrr ertu, li,
gnarstafr, fyr jfrum,
gr, tveimr, vi kyn beima.

orn, sem Arnrr kva:

156. Hl, en hla tu
hirmenn ara grenni,
auar orn fyr rnu
ungr valkstu unga.

60. Orrostukenningar.

Hvernig skal kenna orrostu? Sv, at kalla ver vpna ea hlfa ea ins ea valkyrju ea herkonunga ea gn ea glym. Sv kva Hornklofi:

157. Hi gramr, ar er gnu,
geira hregg vi seggi,
rau fnstu ben bli,
benggl at dyn Skglar.

Sv kva Eyvindr:

158. Ok s halr
at Hars veri
hsvan serk
hrsgrmnis bar.

Sv kva Bersi:

159. tta ek, er ri,
r, sagt er at, vrum,
hfr at Hlakkar drfu
hyrrunnum vel gunnar.

Sv kva Einarr:

160. Glymvindi ltr Gndlar,
gnestr hrr, taka mestum
Hildar segl, ar er hagli,
hraustr engill, drfr strengjar.

Sem kva Einarr sklaglamm:

161. N sigbjarka serkir
smmijungum rmu
Hrs vi Hgna skrir
hlut fast of sir.

Sv sem hr:

162. Odda gns vi si
oddnets inul setja.

Ok enn etta:

163. Hnigu fjandr at glym Gndlar
grams und arnar hramma.


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