21. Of sa-Thor

Then said Gangleri: "What are the names of the other sir, or what is their office, or what deeds of renown have they done?" Hrr answered: "Thor is the foremost of them, he that is called Thor of the sir, or ku-Thor; he is strongest of all the gods and men. He has his realm in the place called Thrdvangar1, and his hall is called Bilskirnir;2 in that hall are five hundred rooms and forty. That is the greatest house that men know of; It is thus said in Grmnisml:

Five hundred floors | and more than forty,
So reckon I Bilskirnir with bending ways;
Of those houses | that I know of hall-roofed,
My son's I know the most.

Thor has two he-goats, that are called Tooth-Gnasher and Tooth-Gritter, and a chariot wherein he drives, and the he-goats draw the chariot; therefore is he called ku-Thor.3 He has also three things of great price: one is the hammer Mjllnir, which the Rime-Giants and the Hill-Giants know, when it is raised on high; and that is no wonder, it has bruised many a skull among their fathers or their kinsmen. He has a second costly thing, best of all: the girdle of might; and when he clasps it about him, then the godlike strength within him is increased by half. Yet a third thing he has, in which there is much virtue: his iron gloves; he cannot do without them when he uses his hammer-shaft. But no one is so wise that he can tell all his mighty works; yet I can tell thee so much tidings of him that the hours would be spent before all that I know were told."

22. Of Baldr

Then said Gangleri: "I would ask tidings of more sir." Hrr replied: "The second son of Odin is Baldr, and good things are to be said of him. He is best, and all praise him; he is so fair of feature, and so bright, that light shines from him. A certain herb is so white that it is likened to Baldr's brow; of all grasses it is whitest, and by it thou mayest judge his fairness, both in hair and in body. He is the wisest of the sir, and the fairest-spoken and most gracious; and that quality attends him, that none may gainsay his judgments. He dwells in the place called Breidablik,4 which is in heaven; in that place may nothing unclean be, even as is said here:

Breidablik 't is called, | where Baldr has
A hall made for himself:
In that land | where I know lie
Fewest baneful runes.

23. Of Njrr and Skai

"The third among the sir is he that is called Njrdr: he dwells in heaven, in the abode called Natn. He rules the course of the wind, and stills sea and fire; on him shall men call for voyages and for hunting. He is so prosperous and abounding in wealth, that he may give them great plenty of lands or of gear; and him shall men invoke for such things. Njrdr is not of the race of the sir: he was reared in the land of the Vanir, but the Vanir delivered him as hostage to the gods, and took for hostage in exchange him that men call Hœnir; he became an atonement between the gods and the Vanir. Njrdr has to wife the woman called Skadi, daughter of Thjazi the giant. Skadi would fain dwell in the abode which her father had had, which is on certain mountains, in the place called Thrymheimr; but Njrdr would be near the sea. They made a compact on these terms: they should be nine nights in Thrymheimr, but the second nine at Natn. But when Njrdr came down from the mountain back to Natn, he sang this lay:

Loath were the hills to me, | I was not long in them,
Nights only nine;
To me the wailing of | wolves seemed ill,
After the song of swans.

Then Skadi sang this:

Sleep could I never | on the sea-beds,
For the wailing of waterfowl;
He wakens me, | who comes from the deep--
The sea-mew every morn.

Then Skadi went up onto the mountain, and dwelt in Thrymheimr. And she goes for the more part on snowshoes and with a bow and arrow, and shoots beasts; she is called Snowshoe-Goddess or Lady of the Snowshoes. So it is said:

Thrymheimr 't is called, | where Thjazi dwelt,
He the hideous giant;
But now Skadi abides, | pure bride of the gods,
In her father's ancient freehold.

24. Of Freyr and Freyja

"Njrdr in Natn begot afterward two children: the son was called Freyr, and the daughter Freyja; they were fair of face and mighty. Freyr is the most renowned of the sir; he rules over the rain and the shining of the sun, and therewithal the fruit of the earth; and it is good to call on him for fruitful seasons and peace. He governs also the prosperity of men. But Freyja is the most renowned of the goddesses; she has in heaven the dwelling called Flkvangr,5 and wheresoever she rides to the strife, she has one-half of the kill, and Odin half, as is here said:

Flkvangr 't is called, | where Freyja rules
Degrees of seats in the hall;
Half the kill | she keepeth each day,
And half Odin hath.

Her hall Sessrmnir6 is great and fair. When she goes forth, she drives her cats and sits in a chariot; she is most conformable to man's prayers, and from her name comes the name of honor, Fr, by which noblewomen are called. Songs of love are well-pleasing to her; it is good to call on her for furtherance in love."

25. Of Tr

Then said Gangleri: "Great in power do these sir seem to me; nor is it a marvel, that much authority attends you who are said to possess understanding of the gods, and know which one men should call on for what boon soever. Or are the gods yet more?" Hrr said: "Yet remains that one of the sir who is called Tr: he is most daring, and best in stoutness of heart, and he has much authority over victory in battle; it is good for men of valor to invoke him. It is a proverb, that he is Tr-valiant, who surpasses other men and does not waver. He is wise, so that it is also said, that he that is wisest is Tr-prudent. This is one token of his daring: when the sir enticed Fenris-Wolf to take upon him the fetter Gleipnir, the wolf did not believe them, that they would loose him, until they laid Tr's hand into his mouth as a pledge. But when the sir would not loose him, then he bit off the hand at the place now called 'the wolf's joint;' and Tr is one-handed, and is not called a reconciler of men.

26. Of Bragi and Iunn

"One is called Bragi: he is renowned for wisdom, and most of all for fluency of speech and skill with words. He knows most of skaldship, and after him skaldship is called bragr,7 and from his name that one is called bragr-man or -woman, who possesses eloquence surpassing others, of women or of men. His wife is Idunn: she guards in her chest of ash those apples which the gods must taste whensoever they grow old; and then they all become young, and so it shall be even unto the Weird of the Gods." Then said Gangleri: "A very great thing, methinks, the gods entrust to the watchfulness and good faith of Idunn." Then said Hrr, laughing loudly: "'T was near being desperate once; I may be able to tell thee of it, but now thou shalt first hear more of the names of the sir.

27. Of Heimdallr

"Heimdallr is the name of one: he is called the White God. He is great and holy; nine maids, all sisters, bore him for a son. He is also called Hallinskdi8 and Gullintanni;9 his teeth were of gold, and his horse is called Gold-top. He dwells in the place called Himinbjrg,10 hard by Bifrst: he is the warder of the gods, and sits there by heaven's end to guard the bridge from the Hill-Giants. He needs less sleep than a bird; he sees equally well night and day a hundred leagues from him, and hears how grass grows on the earth or wool on sheep, and everything that has a louder sound. He has that trumpet which is called Gjallar-Horn, and its blast is heard throughout all worlds. Heimdallr's sword is called Head. It is said further:

Himinbjrg 't is called, | where Heimdallr, they say,
Aye has his housing;
There the gods' sentinel | drinks in his snug hall
Gladly good mead.

And furthermore, he himself says in Heimdalar-galdr:

I am of nine | mothers the offspring,
Of sisters nine | am I the son.

28. Of Hr

"One of the sir is named Hdr: he is blind. He is of sufficient strength, but the gods would desire that no occasion should rise of naming this god, for the work of his hands shall long be held in memory among gods and men.

29. Of Varr

"Vdarr is the name of one, the silent god. He has a thick shoe. He is nearly as strong as Thor; in him the gods have great trust in all struggles.

30. Of Vli

"One is called li or Vli, son of Odin and Rindr: he is daring in fights, and a most fortunate marksman.

[1. Plains of strength.

2. From the flashing of light (Cl.-Vig.).

3. According to Cleasby-Vigfsson, a popular etymology. "ku is not to be derived from ka (to drive), but is rather of Finnish origin, Ukko being the Thunder-god of the Chudic tribes." Jnsson, however, allows Snorri's etymology to stand.

4. Broad-gleaming.

5. Folk-plain, Host-plain.

6. Seat-roomy.

7. Bragr, as a noun, means "poetry": as an adjective, it seems to mean "foremost" (Cl.-Vig.). Thus the phrase bragr karla seems to be "foremost of men," with apparent reference to poetic preminence.

8. Ram (Cl.-Vig.).

9. Golden-teeth.

10. Heaven-fells.]


21. Fr sa-r.

mlti Gangleri: "Hver eru nfn annarra sanna, ea hvat hafast eir at, ea hvat hafa eir gert til frama?"

Hrr segir: "rr er eira framast, s er kallar er sa-rr ea ku-rr. Hann er sterkastr allra goanna ok manna. Hann ar rki, er rvangar heita, en hll hans heitir Bilskirrnir. eim sal eru fimm hundru glfa ok fjrir tigir. at er hs mest, sv at menn viti. Sv segir Grmnismlum:

33. Fimm hundru golfa
ok umb fjrum tgum,
sv hygg ek Bilskirrni me bugum;
ranna eira,
er ek reft vita,
mns veit ek mest magar.

rr hafra tv, er sv heita: Tanngnjstr ok Tanngrisnir, ok rei , er hann ekr, en hafrarnir draga reina. v er hann kallar ku-rr. Hann ok rj kostgripi. Einn eira er hamarrinn Mjllnir, er hrmursar ok bergrisar kenna, er hann kemr loft, ok er at eigi undarligt. Hann hefir lamit margan haus ferum ea frndum eira. Annan grip hann beztan, megingjarar, ok er hann spennir eim um sik, vex honum smegin hlfu. Inn rija hlut hann, ann er mikill gripr er . at eru jrnglfar. eira m hann eigi missa vi hamarskaftit. En engi er sv frr, at telja kunni ll strvirki hans, en segja kann ek r sv mrg tendi fr honum, at dveljast munu stundirnar, r en sagt er allt, at er ek veit."

22. Fr Baldri.

mlti Gangleri: "Spyrja vil ek tenda af fleirum sunum."

Hrr segir: "Annarr sonr ins er Baldr, ok er fr honum gott at segja. Hann er beztr, ok hann lofa allir. Hann er sv fagr litum ok bjartr, sv at lsir af honum, ok eitt gras er sv hvtt, at jafnat er til Baldrs brr. at er allra grasa hvtast, ok ar eftir mttu marka fegur hans bi hr ok lki. Hann er vitrastr sanna ok fegrst talar ok lknsamastr, en s nttra fylgir honum, at engi m haldast dmr hans. Hann br ar, sem heitir Breiablik. at er himni. eim sta m ekki vera hreint, sv sem hr segir:

34. Breiablik heita,
ar er Baldr hefir
sr of grva sali,
v landi,
er ek liggja veit
fsta feiknstafi.

23. Fr Niri ok Skaa.

Inn rii ss er s, er kallar er Njrr. Hann br himni, ar sem heitir Natn. Hann rr fyrir gngu vinds ok stillir sj ok eld. hann skal heita til sfara ok til veia. Hann er sv auigr ok fsll, at hann m gefa eim au landa ea lausafjr. hann skal til ess heita. Eigi er Njrr sa ttar. Hann var upp fddr Vanaheimi, en Vanir gsluu hann gounum ok tku mt at gslingu ann, er Hnir heitir. Hann var at stt me goum ok Vnum. Njrr konu, er Skai heitir, dttir jaza jtuns. Skai vill hafa bsta ann, er tt hafi fair hennar, at er fjllum nkkurum, ar sem heitir rymheimr, en Njrr vill vera nr s. au sttust at, at au skyldu vera nu ntr rymheimi, en arar nu at Natnum. En er Njrr kom aftr til Natna af fjallinu, kva hann etta:

35. Lei erumk fjll,
vark-a ek lengi ,
ntr einar nu;
ulfa ytr
mr tti illr vera
hj sngvi svana.

kva Skai etta:

36. Sofa ek n mttak
svar bejum
fugls jarmi fyrir;
s mik vekr,
er af vi kemr,
morgin hverjan mr.

fr Skai upp fjall ok byggi rymheimi, ok ferr hon mjk skum ok me boga ok sktr dr. Hon heitir ndurgo ea ndurds. Sv er sagt:

37. rymheimr heitir,
er jazi bj,
s inn mttki jtunn;
en n Skai byggvir,
skr brr goa,
fornar toftir fur.

24. Fr Frey ok Freyju

Njrr Natnum gat san tvau brn. Ht annat Freyr, en dttir Freyja. au vru fgr litum ok mttug. Freyr er inn gtasti af sum. Hann rr fyrir regni ok skini slar ok ar me vexti jarar, ok hann er gott at heita til rs ok friar. Hann rr ok fslu manna. En Freyja er gtust af synjum. Hon ann b himni, er Flkvangr heitir. Ok hvar sem hon rr til vgs, hon hlfan val, en hlfan inn, sv sem hr segir:

38. Folkvangr heitir,
en ar Freyja rr
sessa kostum sal;
halfan val
hon kss hverjan dag,
en halfan inn .

Salr hennar Sessrmnir, hann er mikill ok fagr. En er hon ferr, ekr hon kttum tveim ok sitr rei. Hon er nkvmust mnnum til at heita, ok af hennar nafni er at tignarnafn, er rkiskonur eru kallaar frvur. Henni lkai vel mansngr. hana er gott at heita til sta."

25. Fr T.

mlti Gangleri: "Miklir ykkja mr essir fyrir sr sirnir, ok eigi er undarligt, at mikill kraftr fylgi yr, er r skulu kunna skyn goanna ok vita, hvert bija skal hverrar bnarinnar. Ea eru fleiri enn goin?"

Hrr segir: "S er enn ss, er Tr heitir. Hann er djarfastr ok bezt hugar, ok hann rr mjk sigri orrostum. hann er gott at heita hreystimnnum. at er ortak, at s er thraustr, er um fram er ara menn ok ekki sst fyrir. Hann var ok vitr, sv at at er ok mlt, at s er tspakr, er vitrastr er. at er eitt mark um djarfleik hans, er sir lokkuu Fenrislf til ess at leggja fjturinn hann, Gleipni, tri hann eim eigi, at eir mundu leysa hann, fyrr en eir lgu honum at vei hnd Ts munn hans, en er sir vildu eigi leysa hann, beit hann hndina af, ar er n heitir lflir, ok er hann einhendr ok ekki kallar sttir manna.

26. Fr Braga ok Iunni.

Bragi heitir einn. Hann er gtr at speki ok mest at mlsnilld ok orfimi. Hann kann mest af skldskap, ok af honum er bragr kallar skldskapr, ok af hans nafni er s kallar bragr karla ea bragr kvinna, er orsnilld hefir framar en arir, kona ea karlmar. Kona hans er Iunn. Hon varveitir eski snu epli au, er goin skulu bta, er au eldast, ok vera allir ungir, ok sv mun vera allt til ragnarkrs."

mlti Gangleri: "Allmikit ykkir mr goin eiga undir gzlu ea trnai Iunnar."

mlti Hrr ok hl vi: "Nr lagi at fru einu sinni. Kunna mun ek ar af at segja, en skalt n fyrst heyra fleiri nfn sanna.

27. Fr Heimdalli.

Heimdallr heitir einn. Hann er kallar hvti ss. Hann er mikill ok heilagr. Hann bru at syni meyjar nu ok allar systr. Hann heitir ok Hallinski ok Gullintanni. Tennr hans vru af gulli. Hestr hans heitir Gulltoppr. Hann br ar, er heita Himinbjrg vi Bifrst. Hann er vrr goa ok sitr ar vi himins enda at gta brarinnar fyrir bergrisum. Hann arf minna svefn en fugl. Hann sr jafnt ntt sem dag hundra rasta fr sr. Hann heyrir ok at, er gras vex jru ea ull sauum, ok allt at er hra ltr. Hann hefir lr ann, er Gjallarhorn heitir, ok heyrir blstr hans alla heima. Heimdallar sver er kallat hfu manns. Hr er sv sagt:

39. Himinbjrg heita,
en ar Heimdall
kvea valda vum;
ar vrr goa
drekkr vru ranni
glar inn ga mj.

Ok enn segir hann sjlfr Heimdallargaldri:

40. Nu em ek mra mgr,
nu em ek systra sonr.

28. Fr Hei.

Hr heitir einn sinn. Hann er blindr. rit er hann sterkr, en vilja mundu goin, at enna s yrfti eigi at nefna, v at hans handaverk munu lengi vera hf at minnum me goum ok mnnum.

29. Fr Vari.

Varr heitir einn, inn gli ss. Hann hefir sk jokkvan. Hann er sterkr, nst v sem rr. Af honum hafa goin mikit traust allar rautir.

30. Fr Vla.

li ea Vli heitir einn, sonr ins ok Rindar. Hann er djarfr orrostum ok mjk happskeytr.


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