11. Of Sl and Mni

Then said Gangleri: "How does he govern the course of the sun or of the moon?" Hrr answered: "A certain man was named Mundilfari, who had two children; they were so fair and comely that he called his son Moon, and his daughter Sun, and wedded her to the man called Glenr. But the gods were incensed at that insolence, and took the brother and sister, and set them up in the heavens; they caused Sun to drive those horses that drew the chariot of the sun, which the gods had fashioned, for the world's illumination, from that glowing stuff which flew out of Mspellheim. Those horses are called thus: Early-Wake and All-Strong; and under the shoulders of the horses the gods set two wind-bags to cool them, but in some records that is called 'iron-coolness.' Moon steers the course of the moon, and determines its waxing and waning. He took from the earth two children, called Bil and Hjki, they that went from the well called Byrgir, bearing on their shoulders the cask called Sgr, and the pole Simul. Their father is named Vidfinnr. These children follow Moon, as may be seen from the earth."

12. Of the Swallowing of the sun by the wolf

Then said Gangleri: "The sun fares swiftly, and almost as if she were afraid: she could not hasten her course any the more if she feared her destruction." Then Hrr made answer: "It is no marvel that she hastens furiously: close cometh he that seeks her, and she has no escape save to run away." Then said Gangleri: "Who is he that causes her this disquiet?" Hrr replied: "It is two wolves; and he that runs after her is called Skoll; she fears him, and he shall take her. But he that leaps before her is called Hati Hrdvitnisson. He is eager to seize the moon; and so it must be." Then said Gangleri: "What is the race of the wolves?" Hrr answered: "A witch dwells to the east of Midgard, in the forest called Ironwood: in that wood dwell the troll-women, who are known as Ironwood-Women. The old witch bears many giants for sons, and all in the shape of wolves; and from this source are these wolves sprung. The saying runs thus: from this race shall come one that shall be mightiest of all, he that is named Moon-Hound; he shall be filled with the flesh of all those men that die, and he shall swallow the moon, and sprinkle with blood the heavens and all the air; thereof shall the sun lose her shining, and the winds in that day shall be unquiet and roar on every side. So it says in Vlusp:

Eastward dwells the Old One | in Ironwood,
And there gives birth | to Fenrir's brethren;
There shall spring of them all | a certain one,
The moon's taker | in troll's likeness.

He is filled with flesh | of fey men.
Reddens the gods' seats | with ruddy blood-gouts;
Swart becomes sunshine | in summers after,
The weather all shifty. | Wit ye yet, or what?"

13. About Bifrst

Then said Gangleri: "What is the way to heaven from earth?" Then Hrr answered, and laughed aloud: "Now, that is not wisely asked; has it not been told thee, that the gods made a bridge from earth, to heaven, called Bifrst? Thou must have seen it; it may be that ye call it rainbow.' It is of three colors, and very strong, and made with cunning and with more magic art than other works of craftsmanship. But strong as it is, yet must it be broken, when the sons of Mspell shall go forth harrying and ride it, and swim their horses over great rivers; thus they shall proceed." Then said Gangleri: "To my thinking the gods did not build the bridge honestly, seeing that it could be broken, and they able to make it as they would." Then Hrr replied: "The gods are not deserving of reproof because of this work of skill: a good bridge is Bifrst, but nothing in this world is of such nature that it may be relied on when the sons of Mspell go a-harrying."

14. About the residence of the gods and the origin of the dwarves

Then said Gangleri: "What did Allfather then do when sgard was made?" Hrr answered: "In the beginning he established rulers, and bade them ordain fates with him, and give counsel concerning the planning of the town; that was in the place which is called Ida-field, in the midst of the town. It was their first work to make that court in which their twelve seats stand, and another, the high-seat which Allfather himself has. That house is the best-made of any on earth, and the greatest; without and within, it is all like one piece of gold; men call it Gladsheim. They made also a second hall: that was a shrine which the goddesses had, and it was a very fair house; men call it Vinglf. Next they fashioned a house, wherein they placed a forge, and made besides a hammer, tongs, and anvil, and by means of these, all other tools. After this they smithied metal and stone and wood, and wrought so abundantly that metal which is called gold, that they had all their household ware and all dishes of gold; and that time is called the Age of Gold, before it was spoiled by the coming of the Women, even those who came out of Jtunheim. Next after this, the gods enthroned themselves in their seats and held judgment, and called to mind whence the dwarves had quickened in the mould and underneath in the earth, even as do maggots in flesh. The dwarves had first received shape and life in the flesh of Ymir, and were then maggots; but by decree of the gods had become conscious with the intelligence of men, and had human shape. And nevertheless they dwell in the earth and in stones. Mdsognir was the first, and Durinn the second; so it says in Vlusp.

Then strode all the mighty | to the seats of judgment,
The gods most holy, | and together held counsel,
Who should of dwarves | shape the peoples
From the bloody surge | and the Blue One's bones. They made many in man's likeness, Dwarves in the earth, | as Durinn said.

And these, says the Sibyl, are their names:

Ni and Nidi, | Nordri and Sudri,
Austri, Vestri, | Althjfr, Dvalinn;
Nr, Ninn, | Npingr, Dinn,
Bifurr, Bfurr, | Bmburr, Nri,
ri, narr, | inn, Mjdvitnir,
Viggr and Gandlfr, | Vindlfr, Thorinn,
Fli, Kli, | Fundinn, Vli;
Thrr, Thrinn, | Thekkr, Litr and Vitr,
Nr, Nrdr, | Rekkr, Rdsvidr.

And these also are dwarves and dwell in stones, but the first in mould:

| Draupnir, Dlgthvari,
Hrr, Hugstari, | Hledjlfr, Glinn;
Dri, ri, | Dfr, Andvari,
Heptifli, | Hrr, Svarr.

And these proceed from Svarinshaugr to Aurvangar on Jruplain, and thence is Lovarr come; these are their names:

Skirfir, Virfir | Skfidr, i,
lfr, Yngvi, | Eikinskjaldi,
Falr, Frosti, | Fidr, Ginnarr."

15. Of the ash, the Urarbrunnr and the norns

Then said Gangleri: "Where is the chief abode or holy place of the gods?" Hrr answered: 'That is at the Ash of Yggdrasill; there the gods must give judgment everyday." Then Gangleri asked: "What is to be said concerning that place?" Then said Jafnhrr: "The Ash is greatest of all trees and best: its limbs spread out over all the world and stand above heaven. Three roots of the tree uphold it and stand exceeding broad: one is among the sir; another among the Rime-Giants, in that place where aforetime was the Yawning Void; the third stands over Niflheim, and under that root is Hvergelmir, and Ndhggr gnaws the root from below. But under that root which turns toward the Rime-Giants is Mmir's Well, wherein wisdom and understanding are stored; and he is called Mmir, who keeps the well. He is full of ancient lore, since he drinks of the well from the Gjallar-Horn. Thither came Allfather and craved one drink of the well; but he got it not until he had laid his eye in pledge. So says Vlusp:

All know I, Odin, | where the eye thou hiddest,
In the wide-renowned | well of Mmir;
Mmir drinks mead | every morning
From Valfather's wage. | Wit ye yet, or what?

The third root of the Ash stands in heaven; and under that root is the well which is very holy, that is called the Well of Urdr; there the gods hold their tribunal. Each day the sir ride thither up over Bifrst, which is also called the sir's Bridge. These are the names of the sir's steeds: Sleipnir1 is best, which Odin has; he has eight feet. The second is Gladr,2 the third Gyllir,3 the fourth Glenr,4 the fifth Skeidbrimir,5 the sixth Silfrintoppr,6 the seventh Sinir,7 the eighth Gisl,8 the ninth Falhfnir,9 the tenth. Gulltoppr,10 the eleventh Lttfeti.11 Baldr's horse was burnt with him; and Thor walks to the judgment, and wades those rivers which are called thus:

Krmt and rmt | and the Kerlaugs twain,
Them shall Thor wade
Every day | when he goes to doom
At Ash Yggdrasill;
For the sir's Bridge | burns all with flame,
And the holy waters howl."

Then said Gangleri: "Does fire burn over Bifrst?" Hrr replied: "That which thou seest to be red in the bow is burning fire; the Hill-Giants might go up to heaven, if passage on Bifrst were open to all those who would cross. There are many fair places in heaven, and over everything there a godlike watch is kept. A hall stands there, fair, under the ash by the well, and out of that hall come three maids, who are called thus: Urdr,12 Verdandi,13 Skuld;14 these maids determine the period of men's lives: we call them Norns; but there are many norns: those who come to each child that is born, to appoint his life; these are of the race of the gods, but the second are of the Elf-people, and the third are of the kindred of the dwarves, as it is said here:

Most sundered in birth | I say the Norns are;
They claim no common kin:
Some are of sir-kin, | some are of Elf-kind,
Some are Dvalinn's daughters."

Then said Gangleri: "If the Norns determine the weirds of men, then they apportion exceeding unevenly, seeing that some have a pleasant and luxurious life, but others have little worldly goods or fame; some have long life, others short." Hrr said: "Good norns and of honorable race appoint good life; but those men that suffer evil fortunes are governed by evil norns."

16. Further of the ash

Then said Gangleri: "What more mighty wonders are to be told of the Ash?" Hrr replied: "Much is to be told of it. An eagle sits in the limbs of the Ash, and he has understanding of many a thing; and between his eyes sits the hawk that is called Vedrflnir. The squirrel called Ratatskr runs up and down the length of the Ash, bearing envious words between the eagle and Ndhggr; and four harts run in the limbs of the Ash and bite the leaves. They are called thus: Dinn, Dvalinn, Duneyrr, Durathrr. Moreover, so many serpents are in Hvergelmir with Ndhggr, that no tongue can tell them, as is here said:

Ash Yggdrasill | suffers anguish,
More than men know of:

The stag bites above; | on the side it rotteth,
And Ndhggr gnaws from below.

And it is further said:

More serpents lie | under Yggdrasill's stock
Than every unwise ape can think:
Ginn and Minn | (they're Grafvitnir's sons),
Grbakr and Grafvlludr;
fnir and Svfnir | I think shall aye
Tear the trunk's twigs.

It is further said that these Norns who dwell by the Well of Urdr take water of the well every day, and with it that clay which lies about the well, and sprinkle it over the Ash, to the end that its limbs shall not wither nor rot; for that water is so holy that all things which come there into the well become as white as the film which lies within the egg-shell,--as is here said:

I know an Ash standing | called Yggdrasill,
A high tree sprinkled | with snow-white clay;
Thence come the dews | in the dale that fall--
It stands ever green | above Urdr's Well.

That dew which falls from it onto the earth is called by men honey-dew, and thereon are bees nourished. Two fowls are fed in Urdr's Well: they are called Swans, and from those fowls has come the race of birds which is so called."

17. Important places of the gods

Then said Gangleri: "Thou knowest many tidings to tell of the heaven. What chief abodes are there more than at Urdr's Well?" Hrr said: "Many places are there, and glorious. That which is called lfheimr15 is one, where dwell the peoples called Light-Elves; but the Dark-Elves dwell down in the earth, and they are unlike in appearance, but by far more unlike in nature. The Light-Elves are fairer to look upon than the sun, but the Dark-Elves are blacker than pitch. Then there is also in that place the abode called Breidablik,16 and there is not in heaven a fairer dwelling. There, too, is the one called Glitnir,17 whose walls, and all its posts and pillars, are of red gold, but its roof of silver. There is also the abode called Himinbjrg;18 it stands at heaven's end by the bridge-head, in the place where Bifrst joins heaven. Another great abode is there, which is named Valaskjlf;19 Odin possesses that dwelling; the gods made it and thatched it with sheer silver, and in this hall is the Hlidskjlf,20 the high-seat so called. Whenever Allfather sits in that seat, he surveys all lands. At the southern end of heaven is that hall which is fairest of all, and brighter than the sun; it is called Giml.21 It shall stand when both heaven and earth have departed; and good men and of righteous conversation shall dwell therein: so it is said in Vlusp.--

A hall I know standing | than the sun fairer,
Thatched with gold | in Giml bright;
There shall dwell | the doers of righteousness
And ever and ever | enjoy delight."

Then said Gangleri: "What shall guard this place, when the flame of Surtr shall consume heaven and earth?" Hrr answered: "It is sad that another heaven is to the southward and upward of this one, and it is called Andlangr;22 but the third heaven is yet above that, and it is called Vdblinn,23 and in that heaven we think this abode is. But we believe that none but Light-Elves inhabit these mansions now."

18. About the source of the wind

Then said Gangleri: "Whence comes the wind? It is strong, so that it stirs great seas, and it swells fire; but, strong as it is, none may see it, for it is wonderfully shapen." Then said Hrr: "That I am well able to tell thee. At the northward end of heaven sits the giant called Hrsvelgr: he has the plumes of an eagle, and when he stretches his wings for flight, then the wind rises from under his wings, as is here said:

Hrsvelgr hight he | who sits at heaven's ending,
Giant in eagle's coat;
From his wings, they say, | the wind cometh
All men-folk over."

19. About the difference between summer and winter

Then said Gangleri: "Why is there so much difference, that summer should be hot, but winter cold?" Hrr answered: "A wise man would not ask thus, seeing that all are able to tell this; but if thou alone art become-so slight of understanding as not to have heard it, then I will yet permit that thou shouldst rather ask foolishly once, than that thou shouldst be kept longer in ignorance of a thing which it is proper to know. He is called Svsudr24 who is father of Summer; and he is of pleasant nature, so that from his name whatsoever is pleasant is called 'sweet.'

But the father of Winter is variously called Vindljni25 or Vindsvalr;26 he is the son of Vsadr;27 and these were kinsmen grim and chilly-breasted, and Winter has their temper."

20. Of inn and his names

Then said Gangleri: "Who are the sir, they in whom it behoves men to believe?" Hrr answered: "The divine sir are twelve." Then said Jafnhrr: "Not less holy are the synjur, the goddesses, and they are of no less authority." Then said Thridi: "Odin is highest and eldest of the sir: he rules all things, and mighty as are the other gods, they all serve him as children obey a father. Frigg is his wife, and she knows all the fates of men, though she speaks no prophecy,--as is said here, when Odin himself spake with him of the sir whom men call Loki:

Thou art mad now, | Loki, and reft of mind,--
Why, Loki, leav'st thou not off?
Frigg, methinks, | is wise in all fates,
Though herself say them not!

Odin is called Allfather because he is father of all the gods. He is also called Father of the Slain, because all those that fall in battle are the sons of his adopt on; for them he appoints Valhall28 and Vinglf,29 and they are then called Champions. He is also called God of the Hanged, God of Gods, God of Cargoes; and he has also been named in many more ways, after he had come to King Geirrdr:

We were called Grmr | and Gangleri,
Herjann, Hjlmberi;
Thekkr, Thridi, | Thudr, Udr,
Helblindi, Hrr.

Sadr, Svipall, | Sann-getall,
Herteitr, Hnikarr;
Bileygr, Bleygr, | Blverkr, Fjlnir,
Grmnir, Glapsvidr, Fjlsvidr.

Sdhttr, Sidskeggr, | Sigfdr, Hnikudr,
Alfdr, Atrdr, Farmatr;
ski, mi, | Jafnhrr, Biflindi,
Gndlir, Hrbardr.

Svidurr, Svidrir, | Jlkr, Kjalarr, Vidurr,
Thrr, Yggr, Thundr;
Vakr, Skilfingr, | Vfudr, Hroptatr,
Gautr, Veratr."

Then said Gangleri: "Exceeding many names have ye given him; and, by my faith, it must indeed be a goodly wit that knows all the lore and the examples of what chances have brought about each of these names." Then Hrr made answer: "It is truly a vast sum of knowledge to gather30 together and set forth fittingly. But it is briefest to tell thee that most of his names have been given him by reason of this chance: there being so many branches of tongues in the world, all peoples believed that it was needful for them to turn his name into their own tongue, by which they might the better invoke him and entreat him on their own behalf. But some occasions for these names arose in his wanderings; and that matter is recorded in tales. Nor canst thou ever be called a wise man if thou shalt not be able to tell of those great events."

[1. The Slipper.

2. Bright or Glad.

3. Golden.

4. The Starer.

5. Fleet Courser.

6 Silver-top.

7 Sinewy.

8. Beam, Ray.

9. Hairy-hoof.

10. Gold-top.

11. Light-stepper.

12. Past.

13. Present.

14. Future.

15. Elf-home.

16. Broad-gleaming.

17. Glittering.

18. Heaven-crag.

19. Seat or shelf of the Fallen.

20. Gate-seat.

21. Either dative of Himill = Heaven (?) (Cl.-Vig.), or Gem-decked (Bugge).

22. Wide-reaching, extensive.

23. Wide-blue.

24. Delightful.

25. Wind-bringer? (Simrock).

26. Wind-chill.

27. Wet and sleety (Cl.-Vig.).

28. Hall of the Slain.

29. Friendly Floor.

30. Literally, to rake into rows.]


11. Fr Sl ok Mna.

mlti Gangleri: "Hversu strir hann gang slar ea tungls?" Hrr segir: "S mar er nefndr Mundilfari, er tti tvau brn. au vru sv fgr ok fr, at hann kallai son sinn Mna, en dttur sna Sl ok gifti hana eim manni, er Glenr ht. En goin reiddust essu ofdrambi ok tku au systkin ok settu upp himin, ltu Sl keyra hesta, er drgu kerru slarinnar, eirar er goin hfu skapat til at lsa heimana af eiri su, er flaug r Mspellsheimi. eir hestar heita sv, rvakr ok Alsvir, en undir bgum hestanna settu goin tv vindbelgi at kla , en sumum frum er at kallat sarnkol. Mni strir gngu tungls ok rr njum ok nium. Hann tk tvau brn af jrunni, er sv heita, Bil ok Hjki, er au gengu fr brunni eim er, Byrgir heitir, ok bru xlum sr s, er heitir Sgr, en stngin Simul. Vifinnr er nefndr fair eira. essi brn fylgja Mna, sv sem sj m af jru."

12. Fr lfakreppu Slar.

mlti Gangleri: "Skjtt ferr slin ok nr sv sem hon s hrdd, ok eigi myndi hon meir hvata gngunni, at hon hrddist bana sinn."

svarar Hrr: "Eigi er at undarligt, at hon fari kafliga. Nr gengr s, er hana skir, ok engan tveg hon nema renna undan."

mlti Gangleri: "Hverr er s, er henni gerir ann maka?"

Hrr segir: "at eru tveir lfar, ok heitir s, er eftir henni ferr, Skoll. Hann hrist hon, ok hann mun taka hana. En s heitir Hati Hrvitnisson, er fyrir henni hleypr, ok vill hann taka tunglit, ok sv mun vera."

mlti Gangleri: "Hverr er tt lfanna?"

Hrr segir: "Ggr ein br fyrir austan Migar eim skgi, er Jrnvir heitir. eim skgi byggja r trllkonur, er Jrnvijur heita. In gamla ggr fir at sonum marga jtna ok alla vargs lkjum, ok aan af eru komnir essir lfar. Ok sv er sagt, at af ttinni verr s einna mttkastr, er kallar er Mnagarmr. Hann fyllist me fjrvi allra eira manna, er deyja, ok hann gleypir tungl, en stkkvir bli himin ok loft ll. aan tnir sl skini snu, ok vindar eru kyrrir ok gnja hean ok handan. Sv segir Vlusp:

13. Austr br in aldna
ok fir ar
Fenris kindir;
verr af eim llum
einna nkkurr
tungls tjgari
trolls hami.

14. Fyllisk fjrvi
feigra manna,
rr ragna sjt
rauum dreyra;
svrt vera slskin
um sumur eftir,
ver ll vlynd.
Vitu r enn - ea hvat?"

13. Um Bifrst.

mlti Gangleri: "Hver er lei til himins af jru?"

svarar Hrr ok hl vi: "Eigi er n frliga spurt. Er r eigi sagt at, er goin geru br af jru til himins, er heitir Bifrst? Hana muntu st hafa. Kann vera, at at kallir regnboga. Hon er me rimr litum ok mjk sterk ok ger me list ok kunnttu meiri en arar smir. En sv sterk sem hon er, mun hon brotna, er Mspellsmegir fara ok ra hana, ok svima hestar eira yfir strar r. Sv koma eir fram."

mlti Gangleri: "Eigi tti mr goin gera af trnai brna, ef hon skal brotna mega, er au megu gera sem au vilja."

mlti Hrr: "Eigi eru goin hallmlis ver af essi sm. G br er Bifrst, en enginn hlutr er s essum heimi er sr megi treystast, er Mspellssynir herja."

14. Um bstai goa ok upphaf dverga.

mlti Gangleri: "Hvat hafist Alfr at, er gerr var sgarr?"

Hrr mlti: " upphafi setti hann stjrnarmenn sti ok beiddi at dma me sr rlg manna ok ra um skipun borgarinnar. at var ar, sem heitir Iavllur miri borginni. Var at hi fyrsta eira verk at gera hof at, er sti eira tlf standa nnur en hstit, at er Alfr . at hs er bezt gert jru ok mest. Allt er at tan ok innan sv sem gull eitt. eim sta kalla menn Glasheim. Annan sal geru eir. at var hrgr, er gyjurnar ttu, ok var hann allfagr. at hs kalla menn Vinglf. ar nst geru eir hs, er eir lgu afla , ok ar til geru eir hamar ok tng ok steja ok aan af ll tl nnur. Ok v nst smuu eir mlm ok stein ok tr ok sv gngliga ann mlm, er gull heitir, at ll bsggn ok ll reiiggn hfu eir af gulli, ok er s ld kllu gullaldr, r en spilltist af tilkvmu kvinnanna. r kmu r Jtunheimum. ar nst settust goin upp sti sn ok rttu dma sna ok minntust, hvaan dvergar hfu kviknat moldinni ok niri jrunni, sv sem makar holdi. Dvergarnir hfu skipazt fyrst ok tekit kviknun holdi Ymis ok vru makar, en af atkvum goanna uru eir vitandi mannvits ok hfu manns lki ok ba jru ok steinum. Msognir var str ok annarr Durinn. Sv segir Vlusp:

15. gengu regin ll
ginnheilg go,
ok um at gttusk,
hverr skyldi dverga
drtt of skepja
r brimi blgu
ok r Blins leggjum.

16. ar mannlkun
mrg of gerusk,
dvergar jru,
sem Durinn sagi.

Ok essi segir hon nfn eira dverganna:

17. Ni, Nii,
Norri, Suri,
Austri, Vestri,
Aljfr, Dvalinn,
Nr, Ninn,
Npingr, Dinn,
Bfurr, Bfurr,
Bmburr, Nri,
ri, narr,
inn, Mjvitnir.

18. Viggr ok Gandalfr,
Vindalfr, orinn,
Fli, Kli,
Fundinn, Vli,
rr, rinn,
ekkr, Litr ok Vitr,
Nr, Nrr,
Rekkr, Rsvir.

En essir eru ok dvergar ok ba steinum, en inir fyrri moldu:

19. Draupnir, Dolgvari,
Hrr, Hugstari,
Hlejolfr, Glinn,
Dri, ri,
Dfr, Andvari,
Hrr, Svarr.

En essir kmu fr Svarinshaugi til Aurvanga Jruvllu, ok er kominn aan Lofarr. essi eru nfn eira:

20. Skirfir, Virfir,
Skfir, i,
Alfr, Yngvi,
Falr, Frosti,
Fir, Ginnarr."

15. Fr askinum, Urarbrunni ok nornum.

mlti Gangleri: "Hvar er hfustarinn ea helgistarinn goanna?"

Hrr svarar: "at er at aski Yggdrasils. ar skulu goin eiga dma sna hvern dag."

mlti Gangleri: "Hvat er at segja fr eim sta?"

segir Jafnhrr: "Askrinn er allra trj mestr ok beztr. Limar hans dreifast um heim allan ok standa yfir himni. rjr rtr trsins halda v upp ok standa afarbreitt. Ein er me sum, en nnur me hrmursum, ar sem forum var Ginnungagap. In rija stendr yfir Niflheimi, ok undir eiri rt er Hvergelmir, en Nhggr gnagar nean rtina. En undir eiri rt, er til hrmursa horfir, ar er Mmisbrunnr, er spek ok mannvit er flgit, ok heitir s Mmir, er brunninn. Hann er fullr af vsendum, fyrir v at hann drekkr r brunninum af horninu Gjallarhorni. ar kom Alfr ok beiddist eins drykkjar af brunninum, en hann fekk eigi, fyrr en hann lagi auga sitt at vei. Sv segir Vlusp:

21. Allt veit ek, inn,
hvar auga falt,
eim inum mra
Drekkr mj Mmir
morgin hverjan
af vei Valfrs.
Vitu r enn - ea hvat?

rija rt asksins stendr himni, ok undir eiri rt er brunnr s, er mjk er heilagr, er heitir Urarbrunnr. ar eiga goin dmsta sinn. Hvern dag ra sir angat upp um Bifrst. Hon heitir ok sbr. Hestar sanna heita sv: Sleipnir er baztr, hann inn. Hann hefir tta ftr. Annar er Glar, rii Gyllir, fjri Glenr, fimmti Skeibrimir, stti Silfrintoppr, sjaundi Sinir, tti Gsl, nundi Falhfnir, tundi Gulltoppr, ellifti Lttfeti. Baldrs hestr var brenndr me honum, en rr gengr til dmsins ok ver r r, er sv heita:

22. Krmt ok rmt
ok Kerlaugar tvr,
r skal rr vaa
dag hvern,
er hann dma ferr
at aski Yggdrasils,
v at sbr
brenn ll loga,
heilg vtn hla."

mlti Gangleri: "Brenn eldr yfir Bifrst?"

Hrr segir: "at, er sr rautt boganum, er eldr brennandi. Upp himin mundu ganga hrmursar ok bergrisar, ef llum vri frt Bifrst, eim er fara vilja. Margir stair eru himni fagrir, ok er ar allt gulig vrn fyrir. ar stendr salr einn fagr undir askinum vi brunninn, ok r eim sal koma rjr meyjar, r er sv heita: Urr, Verandi, Skuld. essar meyjar skapa mnnum aldr. r kllum vr nornir. Enn eru fleiri nornir, r er koma til hvers barns, er borit er, at skapa aldr, ok eru essar gokunnigar, en arar lfa ttar, en inar riju dverga ttar, sv sem hr segir:

23. Sundrbornar mjk
segi ek nornir vera,
eigu-t r tt saman;
sumar eru skunngar,
sumar eru alfkunngar,
sumar dtr Dvalins."

mlti Gangleri: "Ef nornir ra rlgum manna, skipta r geysi jafnt, er sumir hafa gott lf ok rkuligt, en sumir hafa ltit ln ea lof, sumir langt lf, sumir skammt."

Hrr segir: "Gar nornir ok vel ttaar skapa gan aldr, en eir menn, er fyrir skpum vera, valda v illar nornir."

16. Enn fr askinum

mlti Gangleri: "Hvat er fleira at segja strmerkja fr askinum?"

Hrr segir: "Margt er ar af at segja. rn einn sitr limum asksins, ok er hann margs vitandi, en milli augna honum sitr haukr, s er heitir Verflnir. korni s, er heitir Ratatoskr, renn upp ok nir eftir askinum ok berr fundaror milli arnarins ok Nhggs, en fjrir hirtir renna limum asksins ok bta barr. eir heita sv: Dinn, Dvalinn, Duneyrr, Durarr. En sv margir ormar eru Hvergelmi me Nhgg, at engi tunga m telja. Sv segir hr:

24. Askr Yggdrasils
drgir erfii
meira en menn viti;
hjrtr btr ofan,
en hliu fnar,
skerir Nhggr nean.

Sv er enn sagt:

25. Ormar fleiri liggja
und aski Yggdrasils
en at of hyggi hverr svira apa.
Ginn ok Minn,
eir eru Grafvitnis synir,
Grbakr ok Grafvllur,
fnir ok Svfnir,
hygg ek, at myni
meis kvistum m.

Enn er at sagt, at nornir r, er byggja vi Urarbrunn, taka hvern dag vatn brunninum ok me aurinn ann, er liggr um brunninn, ok ausa upp yfir askinn, til ess at eigi skuli limar hans trna ea fna. En at vatn er sv heilagt, at allir hlutir, eir er ar koma brunninn, vera sv hvtir sem hinna s, er skjall heitir, er innan liggr vi eggskurn, sv sem hr segir:

26. Ask veit ek ausinn,
heitir Yggdrasill,
hrr bamr, heilagr,
hvta auri;
aan koma dggvar,
er dali falla;
stendr hann yfir grnn

S dgg, er aan af fellr jrina, at kalla menn hunangfall, ok ar af fast bflugur. Fuglar tveir fast Urarbrunni. eir heita svanir, ok af eim fuglum hefir komit at fuglakyn, er sv heitir."

17. Hfustair goanna

mlti Gangleri: "Mikil tendi kannt at segja af himninum. Hvat er ar fleira hfustaa en at Urarbrunni?"

Hrr segir: "Margir stair eru ar gfugligir. S er einn star ar, er kallar er lfheimr. ar byggvir flk at, er Ljslfar heita, en Dkklfar ba niri jru, ok eru eir lkir eim snum ok miklu lkari reyndum. Ljslfar eru fegri en sl snum, en Dkklfar eru svartari en bik. ar er einn s star, er Breiablik er kallar, ok engi er ar fegri star. ar er ok s, er Glitnir heitir, ok eru veggir hans ok ster allar ok stlpar af rauu gulli, en ak hans af silfri. ar er enn s star, er Himinbjrg heita. S stendr himins enda vi brarspor, ar er Bifrst kemr til himins. ar er enn mikill star, er Valaskjlf heitir. ann sta inn. ann geru goin ok ku skru silfri, ok ar er Hliskjlfin essum sal, at hsti, er sv heitir, ok er Alfr sitr v sti, sr hann of alla heima. sunnanverum himins enda er s salr, er allra er fegrstr ok bjartari en slin, er Giml heitir. Hann skal standa, er bi himinn ok jr hefir farizt, ok byggja ann sta gir menn ok rttltir of allar aldir. Sv segir Vlusp:

27. Sal veit ek standa
slu fegra,
gulli akan,
ar skulu dyggvar
drttir byggva
ok um aldrdaga
ynis njta."

mlti Gangleri: "Hvat gtir ess staar, er Surtalogi brennir himin ok jr?"

Hrr segir: "Sv er sagt, at annarr himinn s sur ok upp fr essum himni, ok heitir s Andlangr, en inn rii himinn s enn upp fr eim, ok heitir s Vblinn, ok eim himni hyggjum vr enna sta vera. En Ljslfar einir, hyggjum vr, at n byggvi stai."

18. Um uppruna vindsins.

mlti Gangleri: "Hvaan kemr vindr? Hann er sterkr, sv at hann hrrir str hf, ok hann sir eld. En sv sterkr sem hann er, m eigi sj hann, v er hann undarliga skapar."

mlti Hrr: "at kann ek vel segja r. noranverum himins enda sitr jtunn s, er Hrsvelgr heitir. Hann hefir arnarham, en er hann beinir flug, standa vindar undan vngjum hans. Hr segir sv:

28. Hrsvelgr heitir,
er sitr himins enda,
jtunn arnar ham;
af hans vngjum
kvea vind koma
alla menn yfir."

19. Um mismun Sumars ok Vetrar.

mlti Gangleri: "Hv skilr sv mikit, at sumar skal vera heitt, en vetr kaldr?"

Hrr segir: "Eigi mundi sv frr mar spyrja, v at etta vitu allir at segja. En ef einn ert orinn sv fvss, at eigi hefir etta heyrt, vil ek at vel vira, at heldr spyrir eitt sinn frliga en gangir lengr dulir ess, er skylt er at vita. Svsur heitir s, er fair Sumars er, ok er hann sv sllfr, sv at af hans heiti er at kallat svsligt, er bltt er. En fair Vetrar er mist kallar Vindlni ea Vindsvalr. Hann er Vsaar son, ok vru eir ttungar grimmir ok svalbrjstair, ok hefir Vetr eira skaplyndi."

20. Fr ni ok nfnum hans.

mlti Gangleri: "Hverjir eru sir, eir er mnnum er skylt at tra ?"

Hrr segir: "Tlf eru sir gokunnigir."

mlti Jafnhrr: "Eigi eru synjurnar helgari, ok eigi megu r minna."

mlti rii: "inn er str ok elztr sanna. Hann rr llum hlutum, ok sv sem nnur goin eru mttug, jna honum ll sv sem brn fur, en Frigg er kona hans, ok veit hon rlg manna, tt hon segi eigi spr, sv sem hr er sagt, at inn mlti sjlfr vi ann s, er Loki heitir:

29. rr ertu, Loki,
ok rviti,
hv n lezk-a , Loki?
rlg Frigg,
hygg ek, at ll viti,
tt hon sjalfgi segi.

inn heitir Alfr, v at hann er fair allra goa. Hann heitir ok Valfr, v at hans skasynir eru allir eir, er val falla. eim skipar hann Valhll ok Vinglf, ok heita eir Einherjar. Hann heitir ok Hangagu ok Haftagu, Farmagu, ok enn hefir hann nefnzt fleiri vega, er hann var kominn til Geirrar konungs:

30. Htumk Grmr
ok Gangleri,
Herjann, Hjalmberi,
ekkr, rii,
ur, Ur,
Helblindi, Hrr,

31. Sar, Svipall,
Herteitr, Hnikarr,
Bileygr, Bleygr,
Blverkr, Fjlnir,
Grmnir, Glapsvir, Fjlsvir,

Shttr, Sskeggr,
Sigfr, Hnikur,
Alfr, Atrr, Farmatr,
ski, mi,
Jafnhrr, Biflindi,
Gndlir, Hrbarr,
Sviurr, Svirir,
Jalkr, Kjalarr, Viurr,
rr, Yggr, undr,
Vakr, Skilfingr,
Vfur, Hroftatr,
Gautr, Veratr."

mlti Gangleri: "Geysimrg heiti hafit r gefit honum, ok at veit tra mn, at at mun vera mikill frleikr, s er hr kann skyn ok dmi, hverir atburir hafa orit sr til hvers essa nafns."

segir Hrr: "Mikil skynsemi er at rifja at vandliga upp, en er r at skjtast at segja, at flest heiti hafa verit gefin af eim atbur, at sv margar sem eru greinir tungnanna verldinni, ykkjast allar jir urfa at breyta nafni hans til sinnar tungu til kalls ok bna fyrir sjlfum sr, en sumir atburir til essa heita hafa gerzt ferum hans, ok er at frt frsagnir, ok muntu eigi mega frr mar heita, ef skalt eigi kunna segja fr eim strtendum."


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