The Sea

61. Sea, ever-lying,
salt, Ćgir (ocean), waters,
wetness, briny, calm waters,
dead calm and wave,
resounding, high sea, main,
murmurer, rocker and mere,
sucking, pounding surf, same,
whirlpool, stream and fjord.

62. Sound, inlet, fair faring,
far-sounding and wide expanse,
tempest, home of fishes, breaker,
dusky, flood and surf,
swell, dazzler,
Gymir (engulfer) and flower,
rumbling and restless,
surge, pool, snatcher.

63. Crashing, wake, league,
fishing ground, tidal bay and fishing bank,
water, deep and plunge,
bay, tarn and ditch,
tumult, canal, trout-hole,
stream, rivulet and beck,
channel, well, wellspring,
eddy, torrent and firth.

64. Hefring10 (heaving), roller,
whitecap and shoals,
Hrönn (casting-up wave), Rán (plunderer), Kölga (cold one)
and Himinglćva (heaven-gleam),
Dröfn (comber), Uđr (wave) and sweller,
Dúfa (deep), Bylgja (billow),
shoal-breaker and wind-wave,
Blóđughadda (bloody-haired).

Rivers

65. Gjöll* (noisy), Glit (glitter), Gera (greedy),
Glóđ (glowing) and Valskjálf (carrion shelf)
Ván (hope), Víđ* (wide), Vimur,
Ving (meadow?) and Ouse,
Síđ (low), South, Freka (demanding),
Sćkin (pushy), Einstika (lone-progressing)
Elbe, Rye, Oykill,
Ekin (driven), Rennandi (running).

66. Tyne*,11 Rhine and Nith,
Thuil, Rimr (rime?), Ysja (bustler),
Don, Ógn (water), Dýna (bog),
Dyn (thunderer), Höllfara (slopping course),
Órun and Brora,
Auđskjálg (easily crossed), Ludd,
Mun (delight), Merkriđa (remarkably shaking),
Mein, Saxon Elbe.

67. Tiber, Durn (sluggish), Dvina,
Thames, Vönd (difficult) and Strand,
Marne, Móđa (broads), Ţrym (noise),
Morn (murrain) and Gotha-Elbe,
Alne, Uđr (wave), Ólga (swell)
and Euphrates,
Ógn (dread), Eiđrennir (isthmus-runner)
and Aberdeen.

68. Rögn, Hrönn (wave) and Raun (test),
Raum-Elbe, Hnipul (drooper),
Hnöpul, Hjálmunlá (helm-shoal),
Humber, Dvina,
Vil (trouble), Vín (wine), Vella (welling),
Valin (respectable?), Semđ, Salin (salty?),
Dneipr, Drammen, Strauma (torrent),
Nissan, Mynt (mouthed), Gnapa (jutting).

69. Gilling (resounding) and Nile,
Ganges, Tweed,
Luma, Vervađa,
Loire and Gunnţró* (battle trough),
Iđsvöl* (ever-cold),12 Vegsvinn (way-swift)*,
Yn, Ţjóđmuna*,13
Fjörm* (hurrying), Strand and Spey,
and Fimbulţul* (great roaring).

70. Nyt (milk), Hrönn (wave) and Nauđ,
Nöt (wet), Slíđr* (punishment) and Hríđ* (snow-storm),
Körmt, Leiftr* (lightning) and Armet,
the two Kerlaugs (baths),
Gömul (old), Sylgr* (swallower) and Inn
and Geirvimul (spear-swarming),
Ylgr* (she-wolf), Vöđ (ford) and Flóđ (flood),
the Jordan comes last.

Fish

71. Salmon and ling
hake, cusk,
sea-trout, milter salmon,
perch and kelt,
lobster, lumpsucker,
milter, halibut,
mackerel, salmon-trout
and gurnard.14

72. Silt, pollock, skate,
herring, brown trout and redfish,
codfish and houting,
carp, flounder,
fluke, sturgeon
and sea-scorpion,
mackerel shark, catfish
and Greenland shark.

73. Sea dragon, miller's thumb
and prawn,
lobster,15 sand-flounder
and gar pike,
sea scorpion, turbot
and rock crab,
sillung-trout, shellfish,
swordfish and pollack.

74. Codling, coal-fish,
cod, strap-fish,
groundling, pike,
gill-fish, long cod,
eel and carp,
crab, garfish,
dogfish and moonfish,
minnow, sea-urchin.

Whales

75. Buck-whale, pike-whale
and dugong,
dolphin, sea-monster
and porpoises,
ruddy whale, ruddy whale calf,
sperm whale, walrus
and nordcaper.

76. Greenland whale, cow-whale,
narwhal and pilot whale,
humpback, fin-whale
and jut-whale,
bowhead whale, orca
and sei whale,
horse-whale, bottlenose whale,
minke whale and grampus.

A Ship

77. Now I will expound
on heiti for ships:
ark, oar-clutch,
ash, Sessrúmnir (roomy-seated),16
racing warship, cutter, ship
and Skíđblađnir,17
nave, Naglfari,18
rowboat, smack.

78. Freighter, merchant ship,
bow-cold and reindeer,
ridgeback, thole-strap-fixed
hoary-prow,
cruiser, boat and pinnace,
brig, Hringhorni (ringhorn), 19
craft, keel, longship,
Leifnir,20 galley.

79. Ring, Gnóđ, Freki (greedy),
fast, Móđrói (mind-stillness),
thole-strapped, beaked
and deep-beater,
owl, lighter
and ash-wittol,
skiff, long-boat,
cat-boat, conveyance and canoe. 21

80. Knarr, cog, knuckleboat,
coble, dug-out,
dragonship, Elliđi (high-poop),
warship and scow,
fir, steed, galiot,
ferry, punt,
swiftflyer, flyer and delight,
frequent-traveler and host-carrier.

[10. Rán is also a goddess’ name; Hefring, Hrönn (also in verse 59), Kólga, Himinglćva, Dröfn, Uđr, Dúfa, Bylgja, and Blóđughadda are also the names of her and Ćgir's (or the giant Hlér's) 9 daughters.

11. One of the rivers that come out of the Elivögur. Also 10 others, all indicated by asterisks. Gunnţró is likely Gunnthrá and Iđsvöl is likely Svöl.

12. Or Víđsvöl, "wide-cold."

13. Or Ţjóđnuma, "great container."

14. Andvari is also the name of the dwarf who curses the gold.

15. Following Cleasby-Vigfusson in seeing hamerr as error for humerr.

16. Askr is also the name of the first man (Gylfaginning 9), and Sessrúmnir of Freyja’s hall (Gylfaginning 24).

17. Freyr’s ship.

18. The ship that brings the Sons of Múspell at Ragnarök.

19. Baldr’s ship.

20. A sea-king’s name – see verse 4.

21. Also means a leather sheath, so presumably a skin canoe.]

 




Viđauki I.
Nafnaţulur

Sćr.

61. Sćr, sílćgja,
salt, ćgir, haf,
lögr, sumr, lćgir,
lagastafr ok vágr,
gjallr, gnap, geimi,
gnarr, svífr ok marr,
súgr, sog, sami,
svelgr, röst ok fjörđr.

62. Sund, ögr, velfćrr,
simi ok víđir,
hríđ, ver, breki,
húm, flóđ ok brim,
grćđir, glýjuđr,
gymir ok vćgir,
gniđr ok órór,
gjálfr, fen, snapi.

63. Gnat, vörr, vika,
vöst, hóp ok miđ,
vatn, djúp ok kaf,
vík, tjörn ok sík,
stormr, díki, hylr,
straumr, lćkr ok bekkr,
áll, bruđr, kelda,
iđa, fors ok kíll.

64. Hefring, alda,
hvíting ok lá,
hrönn, rán, kólga
ok himinglćva,
dröfn, uđr ok sólmr,
dúfa, bylgja,
bođi ok bára,
blóđughadda.

Ár.

65. Gjöll, glit, gera,
glóđ ok valskjálf,
ván, víđ, vimur,
ving ok ýsa,
síđ, suđr, freka,
sćkin, einstika,
elfr, ró, ekla,
ekin, rennandi.

66. Ţyn, rín ok niđ,
ţöll, rimr, ysja,
dun, ógn, dýna,
dyn, höllfara,
órun ok brá,
auđskjálg, lodda,
mun, merkriđa,
mein, saxelfr.

67. Tífr, durn, vína,
tems, vönd ok strönd,
mörn, móđa, ţrym,
morn ok gautelfr,
alin, uđr, ólga
ok evfrátes,
ógn, eiđrennir
ok apardjón.

68. Rögn, hrönn ok raun,
raumelfr, hnipul,
hnöpul, hjálmunlá,
humra, vína,
vil, vín, vella,
valin, semđ, salin,
nepr, dröfn, strauma,
nis, mynt, gnapa.

69. Gilling ok níl,
ganges, tvedda,
luma, vervađa,
leira ok gunnţró,
iđsvöl, vegsvinn,
yn, ţjóđmuna,
fjörm, strönd ok spé
ok fimbulţul.

70. Nyt, hrönn ok nauđ,
nöt, slíđr ok hríđ,
körmt, leiftr ok örmt,
kerlaugar tvćr,
gömul, sylgr ok yn
ok geirvimul,
ylgr, vöđ ok flóđ,
jórdán er á lesti.

Fiskar.

71. Lax ok langa
lýsa, brosma,
birtingr, hćingr,
bust ok hrygna,
humarr, hrognkelsi,
hveđnir, flóki,
ölunn, aurriđi
ok andvari.

72. Síld, seiđr, skata,
síl, reyđr ok öggr,
skreiđungr ok síkr,
skálgi, flyđra,
fyldingr, styrja
ok fuđryskill,
hámerr, steinbítr
ok háskerđingr.

73. Fjörsungr, ţrömmungr
ok fengrani,
hamarr, sandhverfa
ok horngćla,
marknútr, glömmungr
ok marţvara,
sílungr, skelfiskr,
sverđfiskr ok lýr.

74. Ţyrsklingr, ufsi,
ţorskr, vartari,
grunnungr, gedda,
gjölnir, keila,
áll ok karfi,
krabbi, geirsíl,
hár ok gođlax,
hornsíl, igull.

Hvalir.

75. Hafrhvalr, geirhvalr
ok hafgufa,
hnísa, hafstrambr
ok hnýđingar,
reyđr, reyđarkálfr,
búrungr, rostungr
ok blćjuhvalr.

76. Norđhvalr, kýrhvalr,
náhvalr ok leiftr,
skeljungr, fiskreki
ok skútuhvalr,
sléttibaka, skjaldhvalrv ok sandlćgja,
hrosshvalr, andhvalr,
hrafnreyđr ok vögn.

Skip.

77. Nú mun ek skýra
of skipa heiti:
örk, árakló,
askr, sessrúmnir,v skeiđ, skúta, skip
ok skíđblađnir,
nór, naglfari,
nökkvi, snekkja.

78. Byrđingr, búza,
barđkaldr ok hreinn,
bakki, hömlungr,
hélugbarđi,
röst, bátr ok regg,
röđ, hringhornir,
lung, kjóll, langskip,
leifnir, karfi.

79. Hringr, gnóđ, freki,
hrauđ, móđrói,
hemlir, barđi
ok hylbauti,
ugla, leđja
ok askvitull,
kćna, ketla,
kati, reiđ ok skálpr.

80. Knörr, kuggr, knúi,
keipull, eikja,
dreki, elliđi,
drómundr ok prámr,
fura, vigg, galeiđ,
ferja, skálda,
fley, flaust ok ţekkr,
fartíđr ok liđ.

 




















 


     
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