A Ship

81. Sail, planks, mast,
hold-fast, helm,
clenching, seaming,
clinching and sheet-rope,
stay, stem, steerage ropes,
studdle and buntline,
pennant and black-strakes,
bench, stern and cable.

82. Bow-rails, shrouds,
reefing-rope and sheets,
spikes, mast-tree,
seam, poop-supports,
leek, mast-head,
line, ears,
vane, vane’s tail
and plug.

83. Mast-knob, halyard-hole
and tiller,
hull, bow, fifth plank
and hawse-stem,
buntlines, hawse, pulleys
and stays,
tholes, heel, hammer,
help-rope and leech-line.

84. Yard, sailyard ring, reef,
rib and thole-straps,
windlass, poop,
wand, rowlocks,
winch, tacking-boom,
bulwark, prow and poop brands,
transoms, bow-line,
bulkheads.

85. Prow, knee, boarding,
belt and bows,
keel-board, mast-wedge
and garboard,
bollards, carling,
clews and thwarts,
rigging, gunwhales,
cleats and deck-planks.

86. Guys, halyards,
siphon, oars,
sail-braces, clinch-plates,
bridge and pins,
sand-strake, keel-heel
and anchor,
anchor-buoy, bailer
and crow's nest.

The Earth

87. Earth, landscape, glebe,
marl and Hlöđyn,
humus, Sif, Fjörgyn,
ground, fundament and orb,
field, garden and Fife,
homeplace, country and coast,
land, soil, march,
locale and marsh.

88. Holt, ridge and fell,
mountainside and hill,
knoll, heath and combe,
hillock and slope,
crust, dale and wold,
vale and peninsula,
mold, underturf, hog's-back,
moor, hollow and sand.

89. Now I shall tell
the terms for oxen:
Árvak (early-waking), bellower
and Jörmunrekr,
neat, Freyr, Reginn,
smith, island-driller,
red and driven
and dark-sided,
fighter, gorer,
Vingnir, steerer.

90. Himinhrjóđr (heaven-reaver), cattle
and hard-farer,
Hćfir (hooved), stout one,
roarer, stot,
beeve, short-horn and color,
Hliđr (storm),22 draft-ox,
Arfr (inheritance), Jörmuni23
and mighty smith.

91. Spark, Apli (dapple),
gold-horn,
riches, young bullock, old bull
and Arfuni (heir),
bull, stormer, yeller,
noise and membered,
stud-bull, steer,
taurus, mud-given.

A Cow

92. A cow is called heifer,
she-calf and coquette24
and Auđhumbla,
she is the first of cows.

A Ram

93. Ram, exceeding-horned one,
horn-squealer,
Gumarr,25 glowing-horn
and payment-wretch,
teg, white-horn,
Hallinskíđi,26
simple one, horn-wretch
and Heimdali,
bleater, middling,
he-sheep,27 marten28 and wether.

A Goat

94. A goat is called Grímnir29
and Geirölnir,
Tanngnjóstr,30 chopper
and Tanngrisnir,
billygoat and he-goat,
buck, Grímr31 [is] mentioned.
It's also called Heiđrún,
nanny-goat and kidling,
coalmouth
and kid are the same.

A Bear

95. Bear, bruin, mighty one,
she-bear, elk-opponent
blue-molar, icewolf
and broad-farer,
haltered, teddy,32
growler, leopard,33
rough, greedy, robber,
Jórekr, Mösni,
forest-traveler, cub,
snarler, Vetrliđi (winter-survivor),
greedy-tooth, noisy-ass,34
hooded one, shriveled-gut.

A Hart

96. Hart, Dyraţrór,
Hliđr (storm), Eikţyrnir,
Duneyrr, Dáinn,
Dvalarr, moor-treader.

A Hog

97. Hog, slaughter-shiner,
suckling and Hrímnir,
swine-tarr, boar,
Sćhrímnir, barrow-hog,
pig,35 slaughter-bear,
ridge, dirt-treader,
thriver, warrior, piggy,
barrow, Vaningi.36

A Wolf

98. Varg, wolf, Geri,
watcher, grey-beast,
Hati,37 Hróđvitnir
and heathdweller,
Freki and forest-dweller,
Fenrir, leopard,38
Goth,39 worthy, noisemaker,
howler, fighter,
dusky and dreadful
and swarthy-cheeked.

99. And [she] is called thus:
she-wolf, she-varg,
barker and grey-girl,
... lightheadedness.

Heavens

100. Nine are there heavens
named on high.
I know the lowest,
that is Vindbláinn (wind-dark),
that is Heiđţyrnir (the welkin)
and Hregg-Mímir (storm-Mímir),
the second is called
Andlangr (extended) Heaven,
that you may understand,
the third Víđbláinn (wide-dark),
Víđfeđmi (wide-embracer) I say
to be the fourth,
Hrjóđr (coverer) and Hlýrni (twilighted)
I believe the sixth,
Gimir (fiery or jeweled), Vetmímir (winter-Mímir),
I guess now there are
eight heavens
recounted,
Skattyrnir (rich-wetter) stands
above the clouds,
it is outside
all the worlds.

The Sun

101. Sól and sun,
shine, fair disk,
lightning, cover, plaything,40
healing light, disk,41
lightning, doubt-disk
and light-bringer,
driving, elf-glory
and Dvalin’s plaything.

[22. Hliđr also occurs in verse 96 for a hart.

23. usually referenced as Jörmunr; also a name of Óđinn.

24. skirja means “cow” but also “romping lass”; frenja in compounds means “hoyden”; clearly a different way of looking at cows from what we are used to.

25. Uncertain meaning - gumar = men.

26. Also a name of Heimdallr; see also Heimdali below.

27. blćr also means “air” or “breeze” and appears among the terms for a sword.

28. Mörđr is generally held to be put here in error, since Iceland does not have martens.

29. “Hooded” or “Shadowed” – a name of Óđinn.

30. Tanngnjóstr and Tanngrisnir (Toothgnasher and Toothgrinder) are Thor’s goats.

31. “Cowled”- also a name of Óđinn.

32. Bossi looks to be a diminutive, so I have used the modern one.

33. Hlébarđr “used indiscriminately of a bear, wolf, etc.” Cleasby-Vigfusson. See also verses 57, 98.

34. Going by the two parts of the word in Cleasby-Vigfusson, this should be noisy-twat. Jálfađr, father of din, i.e. battle, is a name of Óđinn.

35. Taking rái as ráđi.

36. A name of Freyr - Vaning, Vanir-child.

37. The wolf that runs before the sun; the name means Shunner.

38. hlébarđr; see also verses 57 and 95.

39. Goti is listed in the Lexicon Poeticum as a term for a horse.

40. Or reading hrjóđrleika following Cleasby-Vigfusson: heavenly plaything. Hrjóđr appears in the preceding verse as one of the heavens.

41. Röđull can also be translated "glory," here and in the compounds in lines 5 and 7.]

 




Viđauki I.
Nafnaţulur

Skip.

81. Segl, skör, sigla,
sviđvíss, stýri,
sýjur, saumför,
súđ ok skautreip,
stag, stafn, stjórnviđ,
stuđill ok sikulgjörđ,
snotra ok sólborđ,
sess, skutr ok strengr.

82. Söx, stćđingar,
svipting ok skaut,
spíkr, siglutré,
saumr, lekstólpar,
laukr, siglutoppr,
lína, eyru,
flaug, flaugarskegg
ok farnagli.

83. Húnn, húnbora
ok hjálmunvölr,
húfr, hlýr, hrefni
ok hálsstefni,
hefill, háls, hanki
ok höfuđbendur,
háir, hćll, hamarr,
hjálpreip ok lík.

84. Rá, rakki, rif,
rengr ok hömlur,
vindáss, vengi,
vöndr, langnefjur,
völt, beitiáss,
varta, brandar,
bitar, bóglína,
búlkastokkar.

85. Barđ, kné, byggđi,
belti ok kinnugr,
kjölborđ, keili
ok kjölsýja,
kraftar, kerling<,
klćr ok ţóftur,
kjalreip, ţrimir,
klofar ok ţiljur.

86. Drengir, dragreip,
dćla, árar,
aktaumar, rćr,
arinn ok nálar,
aurborđ, kjalarhćll
ok akkeri,
hnakkmiđi, austker
ok húnspćnir.

Jörđ.

87. Jörđ, fjörn, rofa,
eskja ok hlöđyn,
gyma, sif, fjörgyn,
grund, hauđr ok rönd,
fold, vangr ok fíf,
frón, hjarl ok barmr,
land, bjöđ, ţruma,
láđ ok merski.

88. Holt, háls ok fjöll,
hlíđ ok leiti,
hóll, heiđr ok hvilft,
hváll ok brekka,
hró, dalr ok völlr,
hvammr ok tunga,
mold, flag, rimi,
mór, laut ok sandr.

Uxi.

89. Enn skal segja
öxna heiti:
árvakr, drjóni
ok jörmunrekr,
simi, freyr, reginn,
smiđr, eyţvari,
rauđr ok rekningr
ok rökkvihliđr,
viggi, bautuđr,
vingnir, stjóri.

90. Himinhrjóđr, simir
ok harđfari,
hćfir, digni,
hjölluđr, simull,
hliđr, stúfr ok litr,
hríđr, forsimi,
arfr, jörmuni
ok eikismiđr.

91. Gneisti, apli,
gollinhorni,
auđr, kvígr, öldungr
ok arfuni,
griđungr, ólgr, gellir,
glymr ok hreiđi,
tíđungr, boli,
tarfr, aurgefinn.

Kýr.

92. Kýr heitir skirja,
kvíga ok frenja
ok auđhumbla,
hon er elzt kúa.

Hrútr.

93. Hrútr, ofrhyrningr,
hornumskváli,
gumarr, hornglóinn
ok gjaldhróinn,
hveđurr, hornglói,
hallinskíđi,
berr, hornhróinn
ok heimdali,
bekri, miđjungr,
blćr, mörđr ok veđr.

Hafr.

94. Hafr heitir grímnir
ok geirölnir,
tanngnjóstr, kjappi
ok tanngrisnir,
skimuđr ok brúsi,
bokkr, grímr taliđr.
Heitir ok heiđrún,
hađna ok kiđlingr,
er kolmúla
ok kiđ saman.

Björn.

95. Björn, bersi, bólmr,
bera, elgviđnir,
blájaxl, ísólfr
ok breiđvegi,
bestingr, bassi,
balti, hlébarđr,
úfr, frekr, vilnir,
jórekr, mösni,
fetvíđnir, húnn,
fress, vetrliđi,
íugtanni, jálfuđr,
ifjungr, vilskarpr.

Hjörtr.

96. Hjörtr, dyraţrór,
hliđr, eikţyrnir,
duneyrr, dáinn,
dvalarr, mótrođnir.

Göltr.

97. Göltr, valglitnir,
gríss ok hrímnir,
svíntarr, runi,
sćhrímnir, börgr,
rái, valbassi,
röđr, dritrođi,
ţrór, vigrir, skunpr,
ţrándr, vaningi.

Úlfr.

98. Vargr, úlfr, geri,
vitnir, grádýri,
hati, hróđvitnir
ok heiđingi,
freki ok viđnir,
fenrir, hlébarđr,
goti, gildr, glammi,
gylđir, ímarr,
ímr ok eggđir
ok skollkini.

99. Enn heitir svá:
ylgr, vargynja,
borkn ok íma,
... svimul.

Himnar.

100. Níu eru himnar
á hćđ talđir.
Veit ek inn neđsta,
sá er vindbláinn,
sá er heiđţyrnir
ok hreggmímir,
annarr heitir
andlangr himinn,
ţat máttu skilja,
ţriđi víđbláinn,
víđfeđmi kveđ ek
vera inn fjórđa,
hrjóđr ok hlýrni
hygg ek inn sétta,
gimir, vetmímir,
get ek nú vera
átta himna
upp of talđa,
skattyrnir stendr
skýjum efri,
hann er útan
alla heima.

Sól.

101. Sól ok sunna,
sýn, fagrahvél,
leiftr, hrjóđr, leika,
líknskin, röđull,
leiftr, ifröđull
ok ljósfari,
drífandi, álfröđull
ok Dvalins leika.

 






























 


     
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