1. gir seeks out the home of the sir

A certain man was named gir, or Hlr. He dwelt on the island which is now called Hlr's Isle,1 and was deeply versed in black magic. He took his way to sgard, but the sir had foreknowledge of his journey; he was received with good cheer, and yet many things were done by deceit, with eye-illusions. And at evening, when it was time for drinking, Odin had swords brought into the hall, so bright that light radiated from them: and other illumination was not used while they sat at drinking. The n the sir came in to their banquet, and in the high-seats sat them down those twelve sir who were appointed to be judges; these were their names: Thor, Njrdr, Freyr, Tr, Heimdallr, Bragi, Vdarr, Vli, Ullr, Hœnir, Forseti, Loki; and in like manner the synjur: Frigg, Freyja, Gefjun, Idunn, Gerdr, Sigyn, Fulla, Nanna. It seemed glorious to gir to look about him in the hall: the wainscottings there were all hung with fair shields; there was also stinging mead, copiously quaffed. The man seated next to gir was Bragi, and they took part together in drinking and in converse: Bragi told gir of many things which had come to pass among the sir.

2. The giant jazi carried off Iunn

He began the story at the point where three of the sir, Odin and Loki and Hœnir, departed from home and were wandering over mountains and wastes, and food was hard to find. But when they came down into a certain dale, they saw a herd of oxen, took one ox, and set about cooking it. Now when they thought that it must be cooked, they broke up the fire, and it was not cooked. After a while had passed, they having scattered the fire a second time, and it was not cooked, they took counsel together, asking each other what it might mean. Then they heard a voice speaking in the oak up above them, declaring that he who sat there confessed he had caused the lack of virtue in the fire. They looked thither, and there sat an eagle; and it was no small one. Then the eagle said: "If ye are willing to give me my fill of the ox, then it will cook in the fire." They assented to this. Then he let himself float down from the tree and alighted by the fire, and forthwith at the very first took unto himself the two hams of the ox, and both shoulders. Then Loki was angered, snatched up a great pole, brandished it with all his strength, and drove it at the eagle's body. The eagle plunged violently at the blow and flew up, so that the pole was fast to the eagle's back, and Loki's hands to the other end of the pole. The eagle flew at such a height that Loki's feet down below knocked against stones and rock-heaps and trees, and he thought his arms would be torn from his shoulders. He cried aloud, entreating the eagle urgently for peace; but the eagle declared that Loki should never be loosed, unless he would give him his oath to induce Idunn to come out of sgard with her apples. Loki assented, and being straightway loosed, went to his companions; nor for that time are any more things reported concerning their journey, until they had come home.

But at the appointed time Loki lured Idunn out of sgard into a certain wood, saying that he had found such apples as would seem to her of great virtue, and prayed that she would have her apples with her and compare them with these. Then Thjazi the giant came there in his eagle's plumage and took Idunn and flew away with her, off into Thrymheimr to his abode.

3. Loki secured Iunn and the slaying of jazi

But the sir became straitened at the disappearance of Idunn, and speedily they became hoary and old. Then those sir took counsel together, and each asked the other what had last been known of Idunn; and the last that had been seen was that she had gone out of sgard with Loki. Thereupon Loki was seized and brought to the Thing, and was threatened with death, or tortures; when he had become well frightened, he declared that he would seek after Idunn in Jtunheim, if Freyja would lend him the hawk's plumage which she possessed. And when he got the hawk's plumage, he flew north into Jtunheim, and came on a certain day to the home of Thjazi the giant. Thjazi had rowed out to sea, but Idunn was at home alone: Loki turned her into the shape of a nut and grasped her in his claws and flew his utmost.

Now when Thjazi came home and missed Idunn, he took his eagle's plumage and flew after Loki, making a mighty rush of sound with his wings in his flight. But when the sir saw how the hawk flew with the nut, and where the eagle was flying, they went out below sgard and bore burdens of plane-shavings thither. As soon as the hawk flew into the citadel, he swooped down close by the castle-wall; then the sir struck fire to the plane-shavings. But the eagle could not stop himself when he missed the hawk: the feathers of the eagle caught fire, and straightway his flight ceased. Then the sir were near at hand and slew Thjazi the giant within the Gate of the sir, and that slaying is exceeding famous.

Now Skadi, the daughter of the giant Thjazi, took helm and birnie and all weapons of war and proceeded to sgard, to avenge her father. The sir, however, offered her reconciliation and atonement: the first article was that she should choose for herself a husband from among the sir and choose by the feet only, seeing no more of him. Then she saw the feet of one man, passing fair, and said: "I choose this one: in Baldr little can be loathly." But that was Njrdr of Natn. She had this article also in her bond of reconciliation: that the sir must do a thing she thought they would not be able to accomplish: to make her laugh. Then Loki did this: he tied a cord to the beard of a goat, the other end being about his own genitals, and each gave way in turn, and each of the two screeched loudly; then Loki let himself fall onto Skadi's knee, and she laughed. Thereupon reconciliation was made with her on the part of the sir.

4. About jazi's line

It is so said, that Odin did this by way of atonement to Skadi: he took Thjazi's eyes and cast them up into the heavens, and made of them two stars.

Then said gir: "It seems to me that Thjazi was a mighty man: now of what family was he?"

Bragi answered: "His father was called lvaldi, and if I tell thee of him, thou wilt think these things wonders. He was very rich in gold; but when he died and his sons came to divide the inheritance, they determined upon this measure for the gold which they divided: each should take as much as his mouth would hold, and all the same number of mouthfuls. One of them was Thjazi, the second Idi, the third Gangr. And we have it as a metaphor among us now, to call gold the mouth-tale of these giants; but we conceal it in secret terms or in poesy in this way, that we call it Speech, or Word, or Talk, of these giants." Then said gir: "I deem that well concealed in secret terms."

5. The origin of the mead of Suttungr

And again said gir: "Whence did this art, which ye call poesy, derive its beginnings?" Bragi answered: "These were the beginnings thereof. The gods had a dispute with the folk which are called Vanir, and they appointed a peace-meeting between them and established peace in this way: they each went to a vat and spat their spittle therein. Then at parting the gods took that peace-token and would not let it perish, but shaped thereof a man. This man is called Kvasir, and he was so wise that none could question him concerning anything but that he knew the solution. He went up and down the earth to give instruction to men; and when he came upon invitation to the abode of certain dwarves, Fjalar and Galarr, they called him into privy converse with them, and killed him, letting his blood run into two vats and a kettle. The kettle is named drerir, and the vats Sn and Bodn; they blended honey with the blood, and the outcome was that mead by the virtue of which he who drinks becomes a skald or scholar. The dwarves reported to the sir that Kvasir had choked on his own shrewdness, since there was none so wise there as to be able to question his wisdom.

"Then these dwarves invited the giant who is called Gillingr to visit them, and his wife with him. Next the dwarves invited Gillingr to row upon the sea with them; but when they had gone out from the land, the dwarves rowed into the breakers and capsized the boat. Gillingr was unable to swim, and he perished; but the dwarves righted their boat and rowed to land. They reported this accident to his wife, but she took it grievously and wept aloud. Then Fjalar asked her whether it would ease her heart if she should look out upon the sea at the spot where he had perished; and she desired it. Then he spoke softly to Galarr his brother, bidding him go up over the doorway, when she should go out, and let a mill-stone fall on her head, saying that her weeping grew wearisome to him; and even so he did.

"Now when the giant Suttungr, Gillingr's son, learned of this, he went over and took the dwarves and carried them out to sea, and set them on a reef which was covered at high tide. They besought Suttungr to grant them respite of their lives, and as the price of reconciliation offered him the precious mead in satisfaction of his father's death. And that became a means of reconciliation between them. Suttungr carried the mead home and concealed it in the place called Hnitbjrg, placing his daughter Gunnld there to watch over it. Because of this we call poesy Kvasir's Blood or Dwarves' Drink, or Fill, or any kind of liquid of drerir, or of Bodn, or of Sn, or Ferry-Boat of Dwarves--since this mead brought them life--ransom from the reef--or Suttungr's Mead, or Liquor of Hnitbjrg."

Then gir said: "These seem to me dark sayings, to call poesy by these names. But how did ye sir come at Suttungr's Mead?"

6. How inn got access to the mead

Bragi answered: "That tale runs thus: Odin departed from home and came to a certain place where nine thralls were mowing hay. He asked if they desired him to whet their scythes, and they assented. Then he took a hone from his belt and whetted the scythes; it seemed to them that the scythes cut better by far, and they asked that the hone be sold them. But he put such a value on it that whoso desired to buy must give a considerable price: nonetheless all said that they would agree, and prayed him to sell it to them. He cast the hone up into the air; but since all wished to lay their hands on it, they became so intermingled with one another that each struck with his scythe against the other's neck.

"Odin sought a night's lodging with the giant who is called Baugi, Suttungr's brother. Baugi bewailed his husbandry, saying that his nine thralls had killed one another, and declared that he had no hope of workmen. Odin called himself Blverkr in Baugi's presence; he offered to undertake nine men's work for Baugi, and demanded for his wages one drink of Suttungr's Mead. Baugi declared that he had no control whatever over the mead, and said that Suttungr was determined to have it to himself, but promised to go with Blverkr and try if they might get the mead. During the summer Blverkr accomplished nine men's work for Baugi, but when winter came he asked Baugi for his hire. Then they both set out for Suttungr's. Baugi told Suttungr his brother of his bargain with Blverkr; but Suttungr flatly refused them a single drop of the mead. Then Blverkr made suggestion to Baugi that they try certain wiles, if perchance they might find means to get at the mead; and Baugi agreed readily. Thereupon Blverkr drew out the auger called Rati, saying that Baugi must bore the rock, if the auger cut. He did so. At last Baugi said that the rock was bored through, but Blverkr blew into the auger-hole, and the chips flew up at him. Then he discovered that Baugi would have deceived him, and he bade him bore through the rock. Baugi bored anew; and when Blverkr blew a second time, then the chips were blown in by the blast. Then Blverkr turned himself into a serpent and crawled into the auger-hole, but Baugi thrust at him from behind with the auger and missed him. Blverkr proceeded to the place where Gunnld was, and lay with her three nights; and then she gave him leave to drink three draughts of the mead. In the first draught he drank every drop out of drerir; and in the second, he emptied Bodn; and in the third, Sn; and then he had all the mead. Then he turned himself into the shape of an eagle and flew as furiously as he could; but when Suttungr saw the eagle's flight, he too assumed the fashion of an eagle and flew after him. When the sir saw Odin flying, straightway they set out their vats in the court; and when Odin came into sgard, he spat up the mead into the vats. Nevertheless he came so near to being caught by Suttungr that he sent some mead backwards, and no heed was taken of this: whosoever would might have that, and we call that the poetaster's part.2 But Odin gave the mead of Suttungr to the sir and to those men who possess the ability to compose. Therefore we call poesy Odin's Booty and Find, and his Drink and Gift, and the Drink of the sir."

7. The character of poesy

Then said gir: "In how many ways are the terms of skaldship variously phrased, or how many are the essential elements of the skaldic art?" Then Bragi answered: "The elements into which all poesy is divided are two." gir asked: "What two?" Bragi said: "Metaphor and metre." "What manner of metaphor is used for skaldic writing?" "Three are the types of skaldic metaphor." "Which?" "Thus: [first], calling everything by its name; the second type is that which is called 'substitution;' the third type of metaphor is that which is called 'periphrasis,' and this type is employed in such manner: Suppose I take Odin, or Thor, or Tr, or any of the sir or Elves; and to any of them whom I mention, I add the name of a property of some other of the sir, or I record certain works of his. Thereupon he becomes owner of the name, and not the one whose name was applied to him: just as when we speak of Victory-Tr, or Tr of the Hanged, or Tr of Cargoes: that then becomes Odin's name: and we call these periphrastic names. So also with the title Tr of the Wain.3

8. Words just to younger skalds

But now one thing must be said to young skalds, to such as yearn to attain to the craft of poesy and to increase their store of figures with traditional metaphors; or to those who crave to acquire the faculty of discerning what is said in hidden phrase: let such an one, then, interpret this book to his instruction and pleasure. Yet one is not so to forget or discredit these traditions as to remove from poesy those ancient metaphors with which it has pleased Chief Skalds to be content; nor, on the other hand, ought Christian men to believe in heathen gods, nor in the truth of these tales otherwise than precisely as one may find here in the beginning of the book.

9. Heiti and kennings for inn

Now you may hear examples of the way in which Chief Skalds have held it becoming to compose, making use of these simple terms and periphrases: as when Arnrr Earls' Skald says that Odin is called Allfather:

Now I'll tell men the virtue
Of the terrible Jarl;
Allfather's Song-Surf streams;
Late my sorrows lighten,

Here, moreover, he calls poesy the Song-Surf of Allfather. Hvardr the Halt sang thus:

Now is the flight of eagles
Over the field; the sailors
Of the sea-horses hie them
To the Hanged-God's gifts and feasting.

Thus sang Viga-Glmr:

With the Hanged-God's helmet
The hosts have ceased from going
By the brink; not pleasant
The bravest held the venture.

Thus sang Refr:

Oft the Gracious One came to me
At the holy cup of the Raven-God;
The king of the stem-ploughed sea's gold
From the skald in death is sundered.

Thus sang Eyvindr Skald-Despoiler:

And Sigurdr,
He who sated the ravens
Of Cargo-God
With the gore of the host
Of slain Haddings
Of life was spoiled
By the earth-rulers
At gl.

Thus sang Glmr Geirason:

There the Tr of Triumph
Himself inspired the terror
Of ships; the gods of breezes
That favor good men steered them.

Thus sang Eyvindr:

Gndull and Skgull
Gauta-Tr sent
To choose from kings
Who of Yngvi's kin
Should go with Odin
And be in Valhall.

Thus sang lfr Uggason:

Swiftly the Far-Famed rideth,
The Foretelling God, to the fire speeds,
To the wide pyre of his offspring;
Through my cheeks praise-songs are pouring.

Thus sang Thjdlfr of Hvin:

The slain lay there sand-strewing,
Spoil for the Single-Eyed
Dweller in Frigg's bosom;
In such deeds we rejoiced.

Hallfredr sang thus:

The doughty ship-possessor
With sharpened words and soothfast
Lures our land, the patient,
Barley-lockd Wife of Thridi.

Here is an example of this metaphor, that in poesy the earth is called the Wife of Odin. Here is told what Eyvindr sang:

Hermdr and Bragi,
Spake Hropta-Tr.

Go ye to greet the Prince;
For a king who seemeth
A champion cometh
To the hall hither.

Thus sang Kormkr:

The Giver of Lands, who bindeth
The sail to the top, with gold-lace
Honors him who pours god's verse-mead;
Odin wrought charms on Rindr.

Thus sang Steinthrr:

Much have I to laud
The ancient-made (though little)
Liquor of the valiant
Load of Gunnld's arm-clasp.

Thus sang lfr Uggason:

There I think the Valkyrs follow,
And ravens, Victorious Odin
To the blood of holy Baldr.
With old tales the hall was painted.

Thus sang Egill Skallagrmsson:

No victims for this
To Vli's brother,
The High-God, I offer,
Glad to behold him;

Yet has Mmir's friend
On me bestowed
Amends of evil
Which I account better.

He has given me the art
He, the Wolf's Opposer,
Accustomed to battle,
Of blemish blameless.

Here he is called High God, and Friend of Mmir, and Adversary of the Wolf.

Thus sang Refr:

Swift God of Slain, that wieldeth
The snowy billow's wave-hawks,
The ships that drive the sea-road,
To thee we owe the dwarves' drink.

Thus sang Einarr Tinkling-Scale:

'T is mine to pour the liquor
Of the Host-God's mead-cask freely
Before the ships' swift Speeder:
For this I win no scorning.

Thus sang lfr Uggason:

His steed the lordly Heimdallr
Spurs to the pyre gods builded
For the fallen son of Odin,
The All-Wise Raven-Ruler.

This is said in Eirksml:

What dream is that? quoth Odin,--
I thought to rise ere day-break
To make Valhall ready
For troops of slain;
I roused the champions,
Bade them rise swiftly
Benches to strew,
To wash beer-flagons;
The Valkyrs to pour wine,
As a Prince were coming.

Kormkr sang this:

I pray the precious Ruler
Of Yngvi's people, o'er me
To hold his hand, bow-shaking.
Hroptr bore with him Gungnir.

Thrlfr sang this:

The Mighty One of Hlidskjlf
Spake his mind unto them
Where the hosts of fearless
Hrekr were slaughtered.

Thus sang Eyvindr:

The mead which forth
From Surtr's sunk dales
The Strong-through-spells
Swift-flying bore.

So sang Bragi:

'Tis seen, on my shield's surface,
How the Son of the Father of Peoples
Craved to try his strength full swiftly
'Gainst the rain-beat Snake earth-circling.

Thus sang Enarr:

Since less with Bestla's Offspring
Prevail most lordly princes
Than thou, my task is singing
Thy praise in songs of battle.

Thus sang Thorvaldr Blending-Skald:

Now have I much
In the middle grasped
Of the son of Borr,
Of Bri's heir.

10. Kennings for poesy

"Now you shall hear how the skalds have termed the art of poesy in these metaphorical phrases which have been recorded before: for example, by calling it Kvasir's Gore and Ship of the Dwarves, Dwarves' Mead, Mead of the sir, Giants' Father-Ransom, Liquor of drerir and of Bodn and of Sn, and Fullness of these, Liquor of Hnitbjrg, Booty and Find and Gift of Odin, even as has been sung in these verses which Einarr Tinkling-Scale wrought:

I pray the high-souled Warder
Of earth to hear the Ocean
Of the Cliff of Dwarves, my verses:
Hear, Earl, the Gore of Kvasir.

And as Einarr Tinkling-Scale sang further:

The Dwarves' Crag's Song-wave rushes
O'er all the dauntless shield-host
Of him who speeds the fury
Of the shield-wall's piercing sword-bane.

Even as Ormr Steinthrsson sang:

The body of the dame
And my dead be borne
Into one hall; the Drink
Of Dvalinn, Franklins, hear.

And as Refr sang:

I reveal the Thought's Drink
Of the Rock-Folk to Thorsteinn;
The Billow of the Dwarf-Crag
Plashes; I bid men hearken.

Even as Egill sang:

The Prince requires my lore,
And bound his praise to pour,
Odin's Mead I bore
To English shore.

And as Glmr Geirason sang:

Let the Princely Giver hearken:
I hold the God-King's liquor.

Let silence, then, be granted,
While we sing the loss of thanes. And as Eyvindr sang:

A hearing I crave
For the High One's Liquor,
While I utter
Gillingr's Atonement;
While his kin
In the Kettle-Brewing
Of the Gallows-Lord
To the gods I trace.

Even as Einarr Tinkling-Scale sang:

The Wave of Odin surges;
Of drerir's Sea a billow
'Gainst the tongue's song-glade crashes;
Aye our King's works are goodly.

And as he sang further:

Now that which Bodn's Billow
Bodes forth will straight be uttered:
Let the War-King's host make silence
In the hall, and hear the Dwarves' Ship.

And as Eilfr Gudrnarson sang:

Grant shall ye gifts of friendship,
Since grows of Sn the Seedling
In our tongue's fertile sedge-bank:
True praise of our High Lord.

Even as Vlu-Steinn sang:

Egill, hear the Heart-streams
Of Odin beat in cadence
'Gainst my palate's skerry;
The God's Spoil to me is given.

Thus sang Ormr Steinthrsson:

No verse of mine men need to fear,
No mockery I intertwine
In Odin's Spoil; my skill is sure
In forging songs of praise.

Thus sang lfr Uggason:

I show to host-glad leifr
The Heart-Fjord's Shoal of Odin,--
My song: him do I summon
To hear the Gift of Grmnir.

Poesy is called Sea, or Liquid of the Dwarves, because Kvasir's blood was liquid in drerir before the mead was made, and then it was put into the kettle; wherefore it is called Odin's Kettle-Liquor, even as Eyvindr sang and as we have recorded before:

While his kin
In the Kettle-Brewing
Of the Gallows-Lord
To the gods I trace.

Moreover, poesy is called Ship or Ale of the Dwarves: ale is l, and li is a word for ships; therefore it is held that it is for this reason that poesy is now called Ship of the Dwarves, even as this verse tells:

The wit of Gunnld's Liquor
In swelling wind-like fullness,
And the everlasting Dwarves' Ship
I own, to send the same road.

[1. Now Lss.

2. See Burns, The Kirk's Alarm, 11th stanza, for a similar idea.

3. Tr. See discussion in Cl.-Vig., p. 647. This word as a proper name refers {footnote p. 97} to the one-armed God of War; but, especially in compounds, it has the sense of God, the God, and is usually applied to Odin. The compounds mentioned here by Snorri are all epithets of Odin. See Gylfaginning Part 26.]


1. gir skir heim si.

Einn mar er nefndr gir ea Hlr. Hann bj eyju eiri, er n er kllu Hlsey. Hann var mjk fjlkunnigr. Hann geri fer sna til sgars, en sir vissu fyrir fer hans, ok var honum fagnat vel ok margir hlutir gervir me sjnhverfingum. Ok um kveldit, er drekka skyldi, lt inn bera inn hllina sver ok vru sv bjrt, at ar af lsti, ok var ekki haft ljs annat, mean vi drykkju var setit.

gengu sir at gildi snu, ok settust hsti tlf sir, eir er dmendr skyldu vera ok sv vru nefndir: rr, Njrr, Freyr, Tr, Heimdallr, Bragi, Varr, Vli, Ullr, Hnir, Forseti, Loki. Slkt sama synjur: Frigg, Freyja, Gefjun, Iunn, Gerr, Sigyn, Fulla, Nanna. gi tti gfugligt ar um at sjst. Veggili ll vru ar tjldu me fgrum skjldum. ar var ok fenginn mjr ok mjk drukkit. Nsti mar gi sat Bragi, ok ttust eir vit drykkju ok oraskipti. Sagi Bragi gi fr mrgum tendum, eim er sir hfu tt.

2. jazi jtunn rnti Iunni.

Hann hf ar frsgn, at rr sir fru heiman, inn ok Loki ok Hnir, ok fru um fjll ok eyimerkr, ok var illt til matar. En er eir koma ofan dal nakkvarn, sj eir xnaflokk ok taka einn uxann ok sna til seyis. En er eir hyggja, at soit mun vera, raufa eir seyinn, ok var ekki soit. Ok annat sinn, er eir raufa seyinn, er stund var liin, ok var ekki soit. Mla eir sn milli, hverju etta mun gegna.

heyra eir ml eikina upp yfir sik, at s, er ar sat, kvast ra v, er eigi sonai seyinum. eir litu til, ok sat ar rn ok eigi ltill.

mlti rninn: "Vili r gefa mr fylli mna af uxanum, mun sona seyinum."

eir jta v. ltr hann sgast r trnu ok sezt seyinn ok leggr upp egar it fyrsta lr uxans tvau ok ba bguna.

var Loki reir ok greip upp mikla stng ok reiir af llu afli ok rekr kroppinn erninum. rninn bregzt vi hggit ok flgr upp. var fst stngin vi bak arnarins, en hendr Loka vi annan enda stangarinnar. rninn flgr htt sv, at ftr Loka taka nir grjt ok urir ok viu, en hendr hans, hyggr hann, at slitna munu r xlum. Hann kallar ok bir allarfliga rninn friar. En hann segir, at Loki skal aldri lauss vera, nema hann veiti honum svardaga at koma Iunni t of sgar me epli sn, en Loki vill at. Verr hann lauss ok ferr til lagsmanna sinna, ok er eigi at sinni sg fleiri tendi um eira fer, r eir koma heim.

En at kveinni stundu teygir Loki Iunni t um sgar skg nkkurn ok segir, at hann hefir fundit epli au, er henni munu gripir ykkja, ok ba, at hon skal hafa me sr sn epli ok bera saman ok hin. kemr ar jazi jtunn arnarham ok tekr Iunni ok flgr braut me ok rymheim til bs sns.

3. Loki ni Iunni ok drp jaza.

En sir uru illa vi hvarf Iunnar, ok gerust eir brtt hrir ok gamlir. ttu eir sir ing, ok spyrr hverr annan, hvat sast vissi til Iunnar, en at var st sast, at hon gekk t r sgari me Loka. var Loki tekinn ok frr ingit, ok var honum heitit bana ea pslum. En er hann var hrddr, kvast hann mundu skja eftir Iunni Jtunheima, ef Freyja vill lj honum valshams, er hon .

Ok er hann fr valshaminn, flgr hann norr Jtunheima ok kemr einn dag til jaza jtuns. Var hann rinn s, en Iunn var ein heima. Br Loki henni hnotarlki ok hafi klm sr ok flgr sem mest. En er jazi kom heim ok saknar Iunnar, tekr hann arnarharminn ok flgr eftir Loka, ok dr arnsg flugnum. En er sirnir s, er valrinn flaug me hnotina ok hvar rninn flaug, gengu eir t undir sgar ok bru annig byrar af lokarspnum. Ok er valrinn flaug inn of borgina, lt hann fallast nir vi borgarvegginn. slgu sirnir eldi lokarspnuna, en rninn mtti eigi stva sik, er hann missti valsins. Laust eldinum firi arnarins, ok tk af fluginn. vru sirnir nr ok drpu jaza jtun fyrir innan sgrindr, ok er at vg allfrgt.

En Skai dttir jaza jtuns, tk hjlm ok brynju ok ll hervpn ok ferr til sgars at hefna fur sns. En sir buu henni stt ok yfirbtr ok it fyrsta, at hon skal kjsa sr mann af sum ok kjsa at ftum ok sj ekki fleira af.

s hon eins manns ftr forkunnarfagra ok mlti: "enna ks ek. Ftt mun ljtt Baldri."

En at var Njrr r Natnum.

at hafi hon ok sttarger sinni, at sir skyldu at gera, er hon hugi, at eir skyldu eigi mega, at hlgja hana. geri Loki at, at hann batt um skegg geitar nkkurrar ok rum enda um hrejar sr, ok ltu au msi eftir ok skrki hvrt tveggja htt. lt Loki fallast kn Skaa, ok hl hon. Var ger stt af sanna hendi vi hana.

4. Af tt jaza.

Sv er sagt, at inn geri at til yfirbta vi Skaa, at hann tk augu jaza ok kastai upp himin ok geri af stjrnur tvr.

mlti gir: "Mikill ykkir mr jazi fyrir sr hafa verit, ea hvers kyns var hann?"

Bragi svarar: "lvaldi ht fair hans, ok merki munu r at ykkja, ef ek segi r fr honum. Hann var mjk gullauigr. En er hann d ok synir hans skyldu skipta arfi, hfu eir mling gullinu, er eir skiptu, at hverr skyldi taka munnfylli sna ok allir jafnmargar. Einn eira var jazi annarr Ii, rii Gangr. En at hfum vr ortak n me oss at kalla gullit munntal essa jtna, en vr felum rnum ea skldskap sv, at vr kllum at ml ea or ea tal essa jtna."

mlti gir: "at ykkir mr vel flgit rnum."

5. Upphaf Suttungamjaar.

Ok enn mlti gir: "Hvaan af hefir hafizt s rtt, er r kalli skldskap?"

Bragi svarar: "at vru upphf til ess, at goin hfu stt vi at flk, er Vanir heita. En eir lgu me sr fristefnu ok settu gri lund, at eir gengu hvrirtveggju til eins kers ok spttu hrka snum. En at skilnai tku goin ok vildu eigi lta tnast at griamark ok skpuu ar r mann. S heitir Kvasir. Hann er sv vitr, at engi spyrr hann eira hluta, er eigi kann hann rlausn.

Hann fr va um heim at kenna mnnum fri, ok er hann kom at heimboi til dverga nkkurra, Fjalars ok Galars, klluu eir hann me sr einmli ok drpu hann, ltu renna bl hans tvau ker ok einn ketil, ok heitir s rerir, en kerin heita Sn ok Bon. eir blendu hunangi vi blit, ok var ar af mjr s, er hverr, er af drekkr, verr skld ea framar. Dvergarnir sgu sum, at Kvasir hefi kafnat mannviti, fyrir v at engi var ar sv frr, at spyrja kynni hann frleiks.

buu essir dvergar til sn jtni eim, er Gillingr heitir, ok konu hans. buu dvergarnir Gillingi at ra s me sr. En er eir fru fyrir land fram, reru dvergarnir boa ok hvelfu skipinu. Gillingr var syndr, ok tndist hann, en dvergarnir rttu skip sitt ok reru til lands. eir sgu konu hans enna atbur, en hon kunni illa ok grt htt. spuri Fjalarr hana, ef henni myndi huglttara, ef hon si t sinn, ar er hann hafi tnzt, en hon vildi at. mlti hann vi Galar, brur sinn, at hann skal fara upp yfir dyrrnar, er hon gengi t, ok lta kvernstein falla hfu henni, ok tali sr leiast p hennar. Ok sv geri hann.

er etta spuri Suttungr jtunn, sonr Gillings, ferr hann til ok tk dvergana ok flytr s t ok setr flarsker. eir bija Suttung sr lfsgria ok bja honum til sttar furgjald mjinn dra, ok at verr at stt me eim. Flytr Suttungr mjinn heim ok hirir, ar sem heita Hnitbjrg, setr ar til gzlu dttur sna, Gunnlu. Af essu kllum vr skldskap Kvasis bl ea dvergadrekku ea fylli ea nkkurs konar lg reris ea Bonar ea Snar ea farskost dverga, fyrir v at s mjr flutti eim fjrlausn r skerinu, ea Suttungamj ea Hnitbjargalgr."

mlti gir: "Myrkt ykkir mr at mlt at kalla skldskap me essum heitum. En hvernig kmuzt r sir at Suttungamii?"

6. Hversu inn komst at miinum.

Bragi svarar: "Sj saga er til ess, at inn fr heiman ok kom ar, er rlar nu slgu hey. Hann spyrr, ef eir vili, at hann brni lj eira. eir jta v. tekr hann hein af belti sr ok brndi ljna, en eim tti bta ljrnir miklu betr ok fluu heinina, en hann mat sv, at s, er kaupa vildi, skyldi gefa vi hf. En allir kvust vilja ok bu hann sr selja, en hann kastai heininni loft upp. En er allir vildu henda, skiptust eir sv vi, at hverr br ljnum hls rum.

inn stti til nttstaar til jtuns ess, er Baugi ht, brir Suttungs. Baugi kallai illt fjrhald sitt ok sagi, at rlar hans nu hfu drepizt, en talist eigi vita sr vn verkmanna. En inn nefndist fyrir honum Blverkr. Hann bau at taka upp nu manna verk fyrir Bauga, en mlti sr til kaups einn drykk af Suttungamii. Baugi kvast einskis r eiga at miinum, sagi, at Suttungr vildi einn hafa, en fara kvest hann mundu me Blverki, ok freista, ef eir fengi mjinn.

Blverkr vann um sumarit nu manna verk fyrir Bauga, en at vetri beiddi hann Bauga leigu snnar. fara eir bir til Suttungs. Baugi segir Suttungi, brur snum, kaup eira Blverks, en Suttungr synjar verliga hvers dropa af miinum. mlti Blverkr til Bauga, at eir skyldu freista vla nkkurra, ef eir megi n miinum, en Baugi ltr at vel vera. dregr Blverkr fram nafar ann, er Rati heitir, ok mlti, at Baugi skal bora bjargit, ef nafarrinn btr. Hann gerir sv. segir Baugi, at gegnum er borat bjargit, en Blverkr blss nafarsraufina, ok hrjta spnirnir upp mti honum. fann hann, at Baugi vildi svkja hann, ok ba bora gegnum bjargit. Baugi borai enn, en er Blverkr bls annat sinn, fuku inn spnirnir. brst Blverkr ormslki ok skrei inn nafarsraufina, en Baugi stakk eftir honum nafrinum ok missti hans.

Fr Blverkr ar til, sem Gunnl var, ok l hj henni rjr ntr, ok lofai hon honum at drekka af miinum rj drykki. inum fyrsta drykk drakk hann allt r reri, en rum r Bon, inum rija r Sn, ok hafi hann allan mjinn. brst hann arnarham ok flaug sem kafast.

En er Suttungr s flug arnarins, tk hann sr arnarham ok flaug eftir honum. En er sir s, hvar inn flaug, settu eir t garinn ker sn, en er inn kom inn of sgar, sptti hann upp miinum kerin, en honum var sv nr komit, at Suttungr myndi n honum, at hann sendi aftr suman mjinn, ok var ess ekki gtt. Hafi at hverr, er vildi, ok kllum vr at skldffla hlut. En Suttungamj gaf inn sunum ok eim mnnum, er yrkja kunnu. v kllum vr skldskapinn feng ins ok fund ok drykk hans ok gjf hans ok drykk sanna."

7. Einkenni skldskapar.

mlti gir: "Hversu marga lund breyti r ortkum skldskapar, ea hversu mrg eru kyn skldskaparins?"

mlti Bragi; "Tvenn eru kyn, au er greina skldskap allan."

gir spyrr: "Hver tvenn?"

Bragi segir: "Ml ok httir."

"Hvert mltak er haft til skldskapar?"

"renn er grein skldskaparmls."


"Sv at nefna hvern hlut, sem heitir. nnur grein er s, er heitir fornfn. In rija mlsgrein er s, er kllu er kenning, ok er s grein sv sett, at vr kllum in ea r ea T ea einhvern af sum ea lfum, ok hvern eira, er ek nefni til, tek ek me heiti af eign annars ssins ea get ek hans verka nkkurra. eignast hann nafnit, en eigi hinn, er nefndr var. Sv sem vr kllum sig-T ea hanga-T ea farma-Tr, at er ins heiti, ok kllum vr at kennt heiti, sv ok at kalla reiar-T."

8. Orum beint til ungra sklda.

En etta er n at segja ungum skldum, eim er girnast at nema ml skldskapar ok heyja sr orfjla me fornum heitum ea girnast eir at kunna skilja at, er hulit er kveit, skili hann essa bk til frleiks ok skemmtunar. En ekki er at gleyma ea sanna sv essar frsagnir at taka r skldskapinum fornar kenningar, r er hfuskld hafa sr lka ltit. En eigi skulu kristnir menn tra heiin go ok eigi sannyndi essa sagna annan veg en sv sem hr finnst upphafi bkar.

9. insheiti ok inskenningar.

N skal lta heyra dmin, hvernig hfuskldin hafa ltit sr sma at yrkja eftir essum heitum ok kenningum, sv sem segir Arnrr jarlaskld, at inn heiti Alfr:

1. N hykk slrhugas segja,
s lttir mr stra,
tr Alfur, tum
jarls kostu, brim hrosta.

Hr kallar hann ok skldskapinn hrostabrim Alfur. Hvarr halti kva sv:

2. N er jdraugum gis
arnar flaug of hauga;
hygg ek, at heimbo iggi
Hangagos af vangi.

Sv kva Vga-Glmr:

3. Lattisk herr me httu
Hangats at ganga,
ttit eim at htta
ekkiligt, fyrir brekku.

Sv kva Refr:

4. Oft kom, jarar leiftra
er Baldr hniginn skaldi,
hollr at helgu fulli
Hrafnsar mr, stafna.

Sv kva Eyvindr skldaspillir:

5. Ok Sigur
hinn er svnum veitti
hrka bjr
Haddingja vals
fjrvi nmu

Sv kva Glmr Geirason:

6. ar var, rafna byrjar
eim stru go Beima
sjalfr ski-alfi
Sigtr Atals dra.

Sv kva Eyvindr enn:

7. Gndul ok Skgul
sendi Gautatr
at kjsa of konunga,
hverr Yngva ttar
skyldi me ni fara
ok Valhllu vera.

Sv kva lfr Uggason:

8. Rr at vilgi vu
vfrgr, en mr la,
Hroftatr, of hvfta
hrrml, sonar bli.

Sv kva jlfr inn hvinverski:

9. Valr l ar sandi,
vitinn inum eineygja
Friggjar fambyggvi,
fgnuum d slkri.

at kva Hallfrer:

10. Sannyrum spenr svera
snarr iggjandi viggjar
barrhaddaa byrjar
bikvn und sik rija.

Hr er ess dmi, at jr er kllu kona ins skldskap. Sv er hr sagt, at Eyvindr kva:

11. Hermr ok Bragi,
kva Hroftatr,
gangi ggn grami,
v at konungr ferr,
s er kappi ykkir,
til hallar hinig.

Sv kva Kormkr:

12. Eykr me ennidki
jarhljtr da fjarar
breyti, hn s er, beinan,
bindr. Sei Yggr til Rindar.

Sv kva Steinrr:

13. Forngrvan ek firnum
farms Gunnlaar arma
horna fors at hrsa
hltstyggs ok ltinn.

Sv kva lfr Uggason:

14. ar hykk sigrunni svinnum
sylgs valkyrjur fylgja
heilags tafns ok hrafna.
Hlaut innan sv minnum.

Sv kva Egill Skalla-Grmsson:

15. Bltk eigi af v
brur Vlis,
at ek gjarn sa;
hefr Mms vinr
mr of fengit
blva btr,
er it betra telk.

16. Gafumk rtt
ulfs of bgi,
vgi vanr,
vammi firra.

Hr er hann kallar gojaarr ok Mms vinr ok lfs bgi. Sv kva Refr:

17. r eigu vr veigar,
Valgautr, salar brautar,
Fals, hrannvala fannar,
framr, valdi tamr, gjalda.

Sv kva Einarr sklaglamm:

18. Hljta mun ek, n hltir,
Herts, of at frju,
fyrir reysi at ausa
austr vngnar flausta.

Sv kva lfr Uggason:

19. Kostigr rr at kesti,
kynfrs, eim er go hlu,
Hrafnfreistaar, hesti
Heimdallr, at mg fallinn.

Sv er sagt Eirksmlum:

20. Hvat er at drauma, kva inn,
ek hugumk fyrir dag rsa,
Valhll ryja
fyrir vegnu flki,
veka ek Einherja,
ba ek upp rsa,
bekki at str,
bjrker leyra,
valkyrjur vn bera,
sem vsi kmi.

at kva Kormkr:

21. Algildan bi ek aldar
allvald of mr halda
s bifvangi Yngva
ungr. Fr Hroftr me Gungni.

at kva rlfr:

22. Sagi hitt, er hugi,
Hliskjalfar gramr sjalfum,
hlfar-styggs ar er hggnir
Hreks liar vru.

Sv kva Eyvindr:

23. Hinn, er Surts
r skkdlum
fljgandi bar.

Sv kva Bragi:

24. at erumk snt, at snimma
sonr Aldafrs vildi
afls vi ri afan
jarar reist of freista.

Sv kva Einarr:

25. v at fjlkostigr flestu
flestr rr vi son Bestlu,
tekit hefk mors til mrar,
mringr en fra.

Sv kva orvaldr blnduskld:

26. N hef ek margt
mii greipat
burar Bors,
Bra arfa.

10. Skldskaparkenningar.

Hr skal heyra, hv skldin hafa kennt skldskapinn eftir essum heitum, er r eru ritu, sv sem er at kalla Kvasis dreyra ok dverga skip, dverga mj, jtna mj, Suttunga mj, ins mj, sa mj, furgjld jtna, lgr reris ok Bonar ok Snar ok fyllr, lgr Hnitbjarga, fengr ok fundr ok farmr ok gjf ins, sv sem hr er kveit, er orti Einarr sklaglamm: 27. Hugstran bi ek heyra,
heyr, jarl, Kvasis dreyra,
foldar vr fyra
fjarleggjar brim dreggjar.

Ok sem kva Einarr enn sklaglamm:

28. Ullar gengr of alla
asksgn ess, er hvt magnar
byrgis bvar sorgar,
bergs geymi-l dverga.

Sv sem kva Ormr Steinrsson:

29. At vri borit bjrs
brkar ok mitt lk,
rekkar nemi daus drykk
Dvalins, einn sal.

Ok sem Refr kva:

30. Grjt-aldar tk gildi
gereinar rsteini;
berg-Mra glymr bra,
bi ek la kyn hla.

Sv sem kva Egill:

31. Buumk hilmir l,
ar ek hrrs of kv,
bar ek ins mj
Engla bj.

Ok sem kva Glmr Geirason:

32. Hli, hafta beiis
hefk, mildingar, gildi;
v bijum vr agnar,
egna tjn at fregnum.

Ok sem kva Eyvindr:

33. Vilja ek hlj
at Hrs li,
mean Gillings
gjldum yppik,
mean hans tt
til goa teljum.

Sv sem Einarr kva sklaglamm:

34. Eisar vgr fyr vsa,
verk Rgnis mr hagna,
tr reris alda,
aldrhafs, vi fles galdra.

Ok enn sem hann kva:

35. N er ats Bonar bra,
berg-Saxa, tr vaxa,
gervi hll ok hli
hlj fley jfurs jir.

Ok sem kva Eilfr Gurnarson:

36. Veri r, alls ora
oss grr of kon mran
sefreinu Snar
s, vingjfum ra.

Sv sem kva Vlu-Steinn:

37. Heyr Mms vinar mna,
mr er fundr gefinn undar,
vi gma sker glymja
glaumbergs, Egill, strauma.
Sv kva Ormr Steinrsson:

38. Seggir urfut ala ugg,
engu sn ek Viurs feng
hi, kunnum hrrsm
haga, of mnn brag.

Sv kva lfr Uggason:

39. Haldrgegnis tk Hildar
hugreifum leifi,
hann vil ek at gjf Grmnis,
gefjarar l, kveja.

Skldskapr er kallar sjr ea lgr dverganna, fyrir v at Kvasis bl var lgr reri, r mjrinn vri gerr, ok ar gerist hann katlinum, ok er hann kallar fyrir v hverlgr ins, sv sem kva Eyvindr ok fyrr var ritat:

40. Mean hans tt
til goa teljum.

Enn er kallar skldskaprinn far ea l dverganna. L heitir l, ok l heitir skip. Sv er tekit til dma, at skldskapr er n kallar fyrir v skip dverga, sv sem hr segir:

41. Bi ek til brar
bergjarls ok skip dverga
sollinn vind at senda
seinfyrnd gtu eina.


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