51. Of Ragnarkr

Then said Gangleri: "What tidings are to be told concerning the Weird of the Gods? Never before have I heard aught said of this." Hrr answered: "Great tidings are to be told of it, and much. The first is this, that there shall come that winter which is called the Awful Winter: in that time snow shall drive from all quarters; frosts shall be great then, and winds sharp; there shall be no virtue in the sun. Those winters shall proceed three in succession, and no summer between; but first shall come three other winters, such that over all the world there shall be mighty battles. In that time brothers shall slay each other for greed's sake, and none shall spare father or son in manslaughter and in incest; so it says in Vlusp:

Brothers shall strive | and slaughter each other;
Own sisters' children | shall sin together;
Ill days among men, | many a whoredom:
An axe-age, a sword-age, | shields shall be cloven;
A wind-age, a wolf-age, | ere the world totters.

Then shall happen what seems great tidings: the Wolf shall swallow the sun; and this shall seem to men a great harm. Then the other wolf shall seize the moon, and he also shall work great ruin; the stars shall vanish from the heavens. Then shall come to pass these tidings also: all the earth shall tremble so, and the crags, that trees shall be torn up from the earth, and the crags fall to ruin; and all fetters and bonds shall be broken and rent. Then shall Fenris-Wolf get loose; then the sea shall gush forth upon the land, because the Midgard Serpent stirs in giant wrath and advances up onto the land. Then that too shall happen, that Naglfar shall be loosened, the ship which is so named. (It is made of dead men's nails; wherefore a warning is desirable, that if a man die with unshorn nails, that man adds much material to the ship Naglfar, which gods and men were fain to have finished late.) Yet in this sea-flood Naglfar shall float. Hrymr is the name of the giant who steers Naglfar. Fenris-Wolf shall advance with gaping mouth, and his lower jaw shall be against the earth, but the upper against heaven,--he would gape yet more if there were room for it; fires blaze from his eyes and nostrils. The Midgard Serpent shall blow venom so that he shall sprinkle all the air and water; and he is very terrible, and shall be on one side of the Wolf. In this din shall the heaven be cloven, and the Sons of Mspell ride thence: Surtr shall ride first, and both before him and after him burning fire; his sword is exceeding good: from it radiance shines brighter than from the sun; when they ride over Bifrst, then the bridge shall break, as has been told before. The Sons of Mspell shall go forth to that field which is called Vgrdr, thither shall come Fenris-Wolf also and the Midgard Serpent; then Loki and Hrymr shall come there also, and with him all the Rime-Giants. All the champions of Hel follow Loki; and the Sons of Mspell shall have a company by themselves, and it shall be very bright. The field Vgrdr is a hundred leagues wide each way.

"When these tidings come to pass, then shall Heimdallr rise up and blow mightily in the Gjallar-Horn, and awaken all the gods; and they shall hold council together. Then Odin shall ride to Mmir's Well and take counsel of Mmir for himself and his host. Then the Ash of Yggdrasill shall tremble, and nothing then shall be without fear in heaven or in earth. Then shall the sir put on their war-weeds, and all the Champions, and advance to the field: Odin rides first with the gold helmet and a fair birnie, and his spear, which is called Gungnir. He shall go forth against Fenris-Wolf, and Thor stands forward on his other side, and can be of no avail to him, because he shall have his hands full to fight against the Midgard Serpent. Freyr shall contend with Surtr, and a hard encounter shall there be between them before Freyr falls: it is to be his death that he lacks that good sword of his, which he gave to Skrnir. Then shall the dog Garmr be loosed, which is bound before Gnipa's Cave: he is the greatest monster; he shall do battle with Tr, and each become the other's slayer. Thor shall put to death the Midgard Serpent, and shall stride away nine paces from that spot; then shall he fall dead to the earth, because of the venom which the Snake has blown at him. The Wolf shall swallow Odin; that shall be his ending But straight thereafter shall Vdarr stride forth and set one foot upon the lower jaw of the Wolf: on that foot he has the shoe, materials for which have been gathering throughout all time. (They are the scraps of leather which men cut out: of their shoes at toe or heel; therefore he who desires in his heart to come to the sir's help should cast those scraps away.) With one hand he shall seize the Wolf's upper jaw and tear his gullet asunder; and that is the death of the Wolf. Loki shall have battle with Heimdallr, and each be the slayer of the other. Then straightway shall Surtr cast fire over the earth and burn all the world; so is said in Vlusp:

High blows Heimdallr, | the horn is aloft;
Odin communes | with Mimir's head;
Trembles Yggdrasill's | towering Ash;
The old tree wails | when the Ettin is loosed.

What of the sir? | What of the Elf-folk?
All Jtunheim echoes, | the sir are at council;
The dwarves are groaning | before their stone doors,
Wise in rock-walls; | wit ye yet, or what?

Hrymr sails from the east, | the sea floods onward;
The monstrous Beast | twists in mighty wrath;
The Snake beats the waves, | the Eagle is screaming;
The gold-neb tears corpses, | Naglfar is loosed.

From the east sails the keel; | come now Mspell's folk
Over the sea-waves, | and Loki steereth;
There are the warlocks | all with the Wolf,--
With them is the brother | of Bleistr faring.

Surtr fares from southward | with switch-eating flame;
On his sword shimmers | the sun of the war-gods;
The rocks are falling, | and fiends are reeling,
Heroes tread Hel-way, | heaven is cloven.

Then to the Goddess | a second grief cometh,
When Odin fares | to fight with the Wolf,
And Beli's slayer, | the bright god, with Surtr;
There must fall | Frigg's beloved.

Odin's son goeth | to strife with the Wolf,--
Vdarr, speeding | to meet the slaughter-beast;
The sword in his hand | to the heart he thrusteth
Of the fiend's offspring; avenged is his Father.

Now goeth Hldyn's | glorious son
Not in flight from the Serpent, | of fear unheeding;
All the earth's offspring | must empty the homesteads,
When furiously smiteth | Midgard's defender.

The sun shall be darkened, | earth sinks in the sea,--
Glide from the heaven | the glittering stars;
Smoke-reek rages | and reddening fire:
The high heat licks | against heaven itself.

And here it says yet so:

Vgrdr hight the field | where in fight shall meet
Surtr and the cherished gods;
An hundred leagues | it has on each side:
Unto them that field is fated."

52. Dwellings after Ragnarkr

Then said Gangleri: 'What shall come to pass afterward, when all the world is burned, and dead are all the gods and all the champions and all mankind? Have ye not said before, that every man shall live in some world throughout all ages?" Then Thridi answered: "In that time the good abodes shall be many, and many the ill; then it shall be best to be in Giml in Heaven. Moreover, there is plenteous abundance of good drink, for them that esteem that a pleasure, in the hall which is called Brimir: it stands in klnir. That too is a good hall which stands in Nida Fells, made of red gold; its name is Sindri. In these halls shall dwell good men and pure in heart.

"On Nstrand1 is a great hall and evil, and its doors face to the north: it is all woven of serpent-backs like a wattle-house; and all the snake-heads turn into the house and blow venom, so that along the hall run rivers of venom; and they who have broken oaths, and murderers, wade those rivers, even as it says here:

I know a hall standing | far from the sun,
In Nstrand: the doors; | to northward are turned;
Venom-drops fill | down from the roof-holes;
That hall is bordered | with backs of serpents.

There are doomed to wade | the weltering streams
Men that are mansworn, | and they that murderers are.

But it is worst in Hvergelmir:

There the cursed snake | tears dead men's corpses."

53. Who shall survive Ragnarkr

Then spake Gangleri: "Shall any of the gods live then, or shall there be then any earth or heaven?" Hrr answered: "In that time the earth shall emerge out of the sea, and shall then be green and fair; then shall the fruits of it be brought forth unsown. Vdarr and Vli shall be living, inasmuch as neither sea nor the fire of Surtr shall have harmed them; and they shall dwell at Ida-Plain, where sgard was before. And then the sons of Thor, Mdi and Magni, shall come there, and they shall have Mjllnir there. After that Baldr shall come thither, and Hdr, from Hel; then all shall sit down together and hold speech. with one another, and call to mind their secret wisdom, and speak of those happenings which have been before: of the Midgard Serpent and of Fenris-Wolf. Then they shall find in the grass those golden chess-pieces which the sir had had; thus is it said:

In the deities' shrines | shall dwell Vdarr and Vli,
When the Fire of Surtr is slackened;
Mdi and Magni | shall have Mjllnir
At the ceasing of Thor's strife.

In the place called Hoddmmir's Holt there shall lie hidden during the Fire of Surtr two of mankind, who are called thus: Lf and Lfthrasir, and for food they shall have the morning-dews. From these folk shall come so numerous an offspring that all the world shall be peopled, even as is said here:

Lf and Lfthrasir, | these shall lurk hidden
In the Holt of Hoddmmir;
The morning dews | their meat shall be;
Thence are gendered the generations.

And it may seem wonderful to thee, that the sun shall have borne a daughter not less fair than herself; and the daughter shall then tread in the steps of her mother, as is said here:

The Elfin-beam | shall bear a daughter,
Ere Fenris drags her forth;
That maid shall go, | when the great gods die,
To ride her mother's road.

But now, if thou art able to ask yet further, then indeed I know not whence answer shall come to thee, for I never heard any man tell forth at greater length the course of the world; and now avail thyself of that which thou hast heard."

54. Of Gangleri

Thereupon Gangleri heard great noises on every side of him; and then, when he had looked about him more, lo, he stood out of doors on a level plain, and saw no hall there and no castle. Then he went his way forth and came home into his kingdom, and told those tidings which he had seen and heard; and after him each man told these tales to the other.

[Here Wilken closes his edition; Jnsson admits the following:

But the sir sat them down to speak together, and took counsel and recalled all these tales which had been told to him. And they gave these same names that were named before to those men and places that were there, to the end that when long ages should have passed away, men should not doubt thereof, that those sir that were but now spoken of, and these to whom the same names were then given, were all one. There Thor was so named, and he is the old sa-Thor.

All reject what follows:

He is ku-Thor, and to him are ascribed those mighty works which Hector wrought in Troy. But this is the belief of men: that the Turks told of Ulysses, and called him Loki, for the Turks were his greatest foes.] {p. 90}

[1. Strand of the Dead.]


51. Fr ragnarkum.

mlti Gangleri: "Hver tendi eru at segja fr um ragnarkr? ess hef ek eigi fyrr heyrt getit." Hrr segir: "Mikil tendi eru aan at segja ok mrg, au in fyrstu, at vetr s kemr, er kallar er fimbulvetr. drfr snr r llum ttum. Frost eru mikil ok vindar hvassir. Ekki ntr slar. eir vetr fara rr saman ok ekki sumar milli, en r ganga sv arir rr vetr, at er um alla verld orrostur miklar. drepast brr fyrir girni sakar, ok engi yrmir fur ea syni manndrpum ea sifjasliti. Sv segir Vlusp:

55. Brr munu berjask
ok at bnum verask,
munu systrungar
sifjum spilla;
hart er me hlum,
hrdmr mikill,
skeggjld, skalmld,
skildir klofnir,
vindld, vargld,
r verld steypisk.

verr at, er mikil tendi ykkja, at lfrinn gleypir slna, ok ykkir mnnum at mikit mein. tekr annarr lfrinn tunglit, ok gerir s ok mikit gagn. Stjrnurnar hverfa af himninum. er ok at til tenda, at sv skelfr jr ll ok bjrg, at viir losna r jru upp, en bjrgin hrynja, en fjtrar allir ok bnd brotna ok slitna. verr Fenrislfr lauss. geysist hafit lndin, fyrir v at snst Migarsormr jtunm ok skir upp landit. verr ok at, at Naglfar losnar, skip at, er sv heitir. at er gert af nglum daura manna, ok er at fyrir v varnanar vert, ef mar deyr me skornum nglum, at s mar eykr mikit efni til skipsins Naglfars, er goin ok menn vildi seint, at gert yri. En essum svargang fltr Naglfar. Hrymr heitir jtunn, er strir Naglfari, en Fenrislfr ferr me gapandi munn, ok er inn neri kjftr vi jru, en in efri vi himin. Gapa myndi hann meira, ef rm vri til. Eldar brenna r augum hans ok nsum. Migarsormr blss sv eitrinu, at hann dreifir loft ll ok lg, ok er hann allgurligr, ok er hann ara hli lfinum. essum gn klofnar himinninn, ok ra aan Mspellssynir. Surtr rr fyrst ok fyrir honum ok eftir eldr brennandi. Sver hans er gott mjk. Af v sknn bjartara en af slu. En er eir ra Bifrst, brotnar hon, sem fyrr er sagt. Mspellsmegir skja fram ann vll, er Vgrr heitir. ar kemr ok Fenrislfr ok Migarsormr. ar er ok Loki kominn ok Hrymr ok me honum allir hrmursar, en Loka fylgja allir Heljarsinnar. En Mspellssynir hafa einir sr fylking, ok er s bjrt mjk. Vllrinn Vgrr er hundra rasta vr hvern veg.

En er essi tendi vera, stendr upp Heimdallr ok blss kafliga Gjallarhorn ok vekr upp ll goin, ok eiga au ing saman. rr inn til Mmisbrunns ok tekr r af Mmi fyrir sr ok snu lii. skelfr askr Yggdrasils, ok engi hlutr er ttalauss himni ea jru. sir herva sik ok allir Einherjar ok skja fram vlluna. Rr fyrstr inn me gullhjlminn ok fagra brynju ok geir sinn, er Gungnir heitir. Stefnir hann mti Fenrislf, en rr fram ara hli honum, ok m hann ekki duga honum, v at hann hefir fullt fang at berjast vi Migarsorm. Freyr berst mti Surti, ok verr harr samgangr, r Freyr fellr. at verr hans bani, er hann missir ess ins ga svers, er hann gaf Skrni. er ok lauss orinn hundrinn Garmr, er bundinn er fyrir Gnipahelli. Hann er it mesta fora. Hann vg mti T, ok verr hvrr rum at bana. rr berr banaor af Migarsormi ok stgr aan braut nu fet. fellr hann daur til jarar fyrir eitri v, er ormrinn blss hann. lfrinn gleypir in. Verr at hans bani. En egar eftir snst fram Varr ok stgr rum fti nera kjft lfsins. eim fti hefir hann ann sk, er allan aldr hefir verit til samnat. at eru bjrar eir, er menn sna r skm snum fyrir tm ea hli. v skal eim bjrum braut kasta s mar, er at v vill hyggja at koma sunum at lii. Annarri hendi tekr hann inn efra kjft lfsins ok rfr sundr gin hans, ok verr at lfsins bani. Loki orrostu vi Heimdall, ok verr hvrr annars bani. v nst slyngr Surtr eldi yfir jrina ok brennir allan heim. Sv er sagt Vlusp:

56. Htt blss Heimdallr,
horn er lofti,
mlir inn
vi Mms hfu;
skelfr Yggdrasils
askr standandi,
ymr it aldna tr,
en jtunn losnar.

57. Hvat er me sum?
Hvat er me alfum?
Ymr allr Jtunheimr,
sir ro ingi,
stynja dvergar
fyrir steindurum,
veggbergs vsir.
Vitu r enn ea hvat?

58. Hrymr ekr austan,
hefisk lind fyrir,
snsk Jrmungandr
ormr knr unnir,
rn mun hlakka,
sltr ni niflr,
Naglfar losnar.

59. Kjll ferr austan,
koma munu Mspells
of lg lir,
en Loki strir;
ar eru fflmegir
me freka allir,
eir er brir
Bleists fr.

60. Surtr ferr sunnan
me sviga lvi,
sknn af sveri
sl valtva;
grjtbjrg gnata,
en gfr rata,
troa halir helveg,
en himinn klofnar.

61. kemr Hlnar
harmr annarr fram,
er inn ferr
vi ulf vega,
en bani Belja
bjartr at Surti;
ar mun Friggjar
falla angan.

62. Gengr ins sonr
vi ulf vega,
Varr of veg
at valdri;
ltr hann megi Hverungs
mund of standa
hjr til hjarta;
er hefnt fur.

63. Gengr inn mri
mgr Hlynjar
neppr af nari
ns kvnum;
munu halir allir
heimst ryja,
er af mi drepr
Migars vurr.

64. Sl mun sortna,
skkr fold mar,
hverfa af himni
heiar stjrnur,
geisar eimi
ok aldrnari,
leikr hr hiti,
vi himin sjalfan.

Hr segir enn sv:

65. Vgrr heitir vllr,
er finnask vgi at
Surtr ok in svsu go;
hundra rasta
hann er hverjan veg;
s er eim vllr vitar."

52. Vistarverur eftir ragnarkr.

mlti Gangleri: "Hvat verr eftir, er brenndr er heimr allr ok dau goin ll ok allir Einherjar ok allt mannflk? Ok hafi r r sagt, at hverr mar skal lifa nkkurum heimi um allar aldir."

svarar rii: "Margar eru vistir gar ok margar illar. Bazt er at vera Giml himni, ok allgott er til gs drykkjar eim, er at ykkir gaman, eim sal, er Brimir heitir. Hann stendr klni. S er ok gr salr, er stendr Niafjllum, gerr af rauu gulli. S heitir Sindri. essum slum skulu byggja gir menn ok siltir. Nstrndum er mikill salr ok illr, ok horfa norr dyrr. Hann er ofinn allr ormahryggjum sem vandahs, en ormahfu ll vitu inn hsit ok blsa eitri, sv at eftir salnum renna eitrr, ok vaa r r eirofar ok morvargar, sv sem hr segir:

66. Sal veit ek standa
slu fjarri
Nstrndu ,
norr horfa dyrr;
falla eitrdropar
inn um ljra;
s er undinn salr
orma hryggjum.

67. Skulu ar vaa
unga strauma
menn meinsvara
ok morvargar.

En Hvergelmi er verst:

ar kvelr Nhggr
ni framgengna."

53. Hverir lifa af ragnarkr

mlti Gangleri: "Hvrt lifa nkkur goin , ea er nkkur jr ea himinn?"

Hrr segir: "Upp sktr jrunni r snum ok er grn ok fgr. Vaxa akrar snir. Varr ok Vli lifa, sv at eigi hefir srinn ok Surtalogi grandat eim, ok byggja eir Iavelli, ar sem fyrr var sgarr, ok ar koma synir rs, Mi ok Magni, ok hafa ar Mjllni. v nst koma ar Baldr ok Hr fr Heljar, setjast allir samt ok talast vi ok minnast rnar snar ok ra of tendi au, er fyrrum hfu verit, of Migarsorm ok um Fenrislf. finna eir grasinu gulltflur r, er sirnir hfu tt. Sv er sagt:

68. Varr ok Vli
byggva v goa,
er sortnar Surtalogi;
Mi ok Magni
skulu Mjllni hafa
Vingnis at vgroti.

En ar, sem heitir Hoddmmisholt, leynast menn tveir surtaloga, er sv heita, Lf ok Leifrasir, ok hafa morgindggvar fyrir mat, en af essum mnnum kemr sv mikil kynsl, at byggvist heimr allr, sv sem hr segir:

69. Lf ok Leifrasir,
en au leynask munu
holti Hoddmmis;
au at mat hafa,
en aan af aldir alask.

Ok hitt mun r undarligt ykkja, er slin hefir getit dttur eigi fegri en hon er, ok ferr s stigu mur sinnar, sem hr segir:

70. Eina dttur
berr alfrull,
r hana fenrir fari;
s skal ra,
er regin deyja,
mur brautir mr.

En ef kannt lengra fram at spyrja, veit ek eigi, hvaan r kemr at, fyrir v at engan mann heyra ek lengra segja fram aldarfarit, ok njttu n sem namt."

54. Fr Ganglera.

v nst heyri Gangleri dyni mikla hvern veg fr sr ok leit t hli sr. Ok er hann sst meir um, stendr hann ti slttum velli, sr enga hll ok enga borg. Gengr hann lei sna braut ok kemr heim rki sitt ok segir au tendi, er hann hefir st ok heyrt, ok eftir honum sagi hverr mar rum essar sgur.

En sir setjast tal ok ra rum snum ok minnast essar frsagnir allar, er honum vru sagar, ok gefa nfn essi in smu, er r vru nefnd, mnnum ok stum eim, er ar vru, til ess, at er langar stundir lii, at menn skyldu ekki ifast , at allir vru einir eir sir, er n var fr sagt, ok essir, er vru au smu nfn gefin. ar var rr kallar, ok er s sa-rr inn gamli.


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