11. Kennings for Thor

What figures should be employed to periphrase the name of Thor? Thus: one should call him Son of Odin and of Jörd, Father of Magni and Módi and Thrúdr, Husband of Sif, Stepfather of Ullr, Wielder and Possessor of Mjöllnir and of the Girdle of Strength, and of Bilskirnir; Defender of Ásgard and of Midgard, Adversary and Slaver of Giants and Troll-Women, Smiter of Hrungnir, of Geirrödr and of Thrívaldi, Master of Thjálfi and Röskva, Foe of the Midgard Serpent. Foster-father of Vingnir and Hlóra. So sang Bragi the Skald:

The line of Odin's Offspring
Lay not slack on the gunwale,
When the huge ocean-serpent
Uncoiled on the sea's bottom.

Thus sang Ölvir Cut-Nose-and-Crop-Ears:

The encírcler of all regions
And Jörd's Son sought each other.

Thus sang Eilífr:

Wroth stood Röskva's Brother,
And Magni's Sire wrought bravely:
With terror Thor's staunch heart-stone
Trembled not, nor Thjálfi's.

And thus sang Eysteinn Valdason:

With glowing eyes Thrúdr's Father
Glared at the sea-road's circler,
Ere the fishes' watery dwelling
Flowed in, the boat confounding.

Eysteinn sang further:

Swiftly Sif's Husband bouned him
To haste forth with the Giants
For his hardy fishing:
Well sing we Hrímnir's horn-stream.

Again he sang:

The earth-fish tugged so fiercely
That Ullr's Kinsman's clenched fists
Were pulled out past the gunwale;
The broad planks rent asunder.

Thus sang Bragi:

The strong fiend's Terrifier
In his right hand swung his hammer,
When he saw the loathly sea-fish
That all the lands confineth.

Thus sang Gamli:

While the Lord of high Bilskirnir,
Whose heart no falsehood fashioned,
Swiftly strove to shatter
The sea-fish with his hammer.

Thus sang Thorbjörn Lady's-Skald:

Bravely Thor fought for Ásgard And the followers of Odin.

Thus sang Bragi:

And the vast misshapen circler
Of the ship's sea-path, fierce-minded,
Stared from below in anger
At the Skull-Splitter of Hrungnir.

Again sang Bragi:

Well hast Thou, Hewer-in-Sunder
Of the nine heads of Thrívaldi,
Kept thy goats1 . . . .

Thus sang Eilífr:

The Merciless Destroyer
Of the people of the Giants
Grasped with ready fore-arms
At the heavy red-hot iron.

Thus sang Úlfr Uggason:

Faintly the stout-framed thickling
A fearful peril called it,
At the great draught wondrous heavy
Drawn up by the Lord of he-goats.

Thus Úlfr sang further:

The very mighty Slayer
Of the Mountain-Man brought crashing
His fist on Hymir's temple:
That was a hurt full deadly.

Yet again sang Úlfr:

Vimur's ford's Wide-Grappler
'Gainst the waves smote featly
The glittering Serpent's head off.
With old tales the hall was gleaming.

Here he is called Giant of Vimur's Ford. There is a river called Vimur, which Thor waded when he journeyed to the garth of Geirrödr.

Thus sang Vetrlidi the skald:

Thou didst break the leg of Leikn,
Didst cause to stoop Starkadr,
Didst bruise Thrívaldi,
Didst stand on lifeless Gjálp.

Thus sang Thorbjörn Lady's-Skald:

Thou didst smite the head of Keila,
Smash Kjallandi altogether,
Ere thou slewest Lútr and Leidi,
Didst spill the blood of Búseyra;
Didst hold back Hengjankjapta,
Hyrrokkin died before;
Yet sooner in like fashion
Svívör from life was taken.

12. Kennings for Baldr

How should one periphrase Baldr? By calling him Son of Odin and Frigg, Husband of Nanna, Father of Forseti, Possessor of Hringhorni and Draupnir, Adversary of Hödr, Companion of Hel, God of Tears. Úlfr Uggason, following the story of Baldr, has composed a long passage in the Húsdrápa; and examples are recorded earlier to the effect that Baldr is so termed.

13. Kennings for Njörđr

How should one periphrase Njördr? By calling him God of the Vanir, or Kinsman of the Vanir, or Wane, Father of Freyr and Freyja, God of Wealth-Bestowal.

So says Thórdr Sjáreksson:

Gudrun's self by ill
Her sons did kill;
The wise God-bride
At the Wane's side
Grieved; men tell
Odin tamed steeds well;
'T was not the saying
Hamdir spared sword-playing.

Here it is recorded that Skadi departed from Njördr, as has already been written.

14. Kennings for Freyr

How should one periphrase Freyr? Thus: by calling him Son of Njördr, Brother of Freyja, and also God of Vanir, and Kinsman of the Vanir, and Wane, and God of the Fertile Season, and God of Wealth-Gifts.

Thus sang Egill Skallagrímsson:

For that Grjótbjörn
In goods and gear
Freyr and Njördr
Have fairly blessed.

Freyr is called Adversary of Beli, even as Eyvindr Spoiler of Skalds sang:

When the Earl's foe
Wished to inhabit
The outer bounds
Of Beli's hater.

He is the possessor of Skídbladnir and of that boar which is called Gold-Bristle, even as it is told here:

Ívaldi's offspring
In ancient days
Went to shape Skídbladnir,
Foremost of ships,
Fairly for Freyr,
Choicely for Njördr's child.

Thus speaks Úlfr Uggason:

The battle-bold Freyr rideth
First on the golden-bristled
Barrow-boar to the bale-fire
Of Baldr, and leads the people.

The boar is also called Fearful-Tusk.

15. Kennings for Heimdallr

How should one periphrase Heimdallr? By calling him Son of Nine Mothers, or Watchman of the Gods, as already has been written; or White God, Foe of Loki, Seeker of Freyja's Necklace. A sword is called Heimdallr's Head: for it is said that he was pierced by a man's head. The tale thereof is told in Heimdalar-galdr; and ever since a head is called Heimdallr's Measure; a sword is called Man's Measure. Heimdallr is the Possessor of Gulltoppr; he is also Frequenter of Vágasker and Singasteinn, where he contended with Loki for the Necklace Brísinga-men, he is also called Vindlér. Úlfr Uggason composed a long passage in the Húsdrápa on that legend, and there it is written that they were in the form of seals. Heimdallr also is son of Odin.

16. Kennings for Týr

How should one periphrase Týr? By calling him the One-handed God, and Fosterer of the Wolf, God of Battles, Son of Odin.

17. Kennings for Bragi

How should one periphrase Bragi? By calling him Husband of Idunn, First Maker of Poetry, and the Long-bearded God (after his name, a man who has a great beard is called Beard-Bragi) and Son of Odin.

18. Kennings for Víđarr

How should one periphrase Vídarr? He maybe called the Silent God, Possessor of the Iron Shoe, Foe and Slayer of Fenris-Wolf, Avenger of the Gods, Divine Dweller in the Homesteads of the Fathers, Son of Odin, and Brother of the Ćsir.

19. Kennings for Váli

How should Váli be periphrased? Thus: by calling him Son of Odin and Rindr, Stepson of Frigg, Brother of the Ćsir, Baldr's Avenger, Foe and Slayer of Hödr, Dweller in the Homesteads of the Fathers.

20. Kennings for Höđr

How should one periphrase Hödr? Thus: by calling him the Blind God, Baldr's Slayer, Thrower of the Mistletoe, Son of Odin, Companion of Hel, Foe of Váli.

[1. The remainder of this stanza cannot be made out.]

 




11. Ţórskenningar.

Hvernig skal kenna Ţór? Svá, at kalla hann son Óđins ok Jarđar, fađir Magna ok Móđa ok Ţrúđar, verr Sifjar, stjúpfađir Ullar, stýrandi ok eigandi Mjöllnis ok megingjarđa, Bilskirrnis, verjandi Ásgarđs, Miđgarđs, dólgr ok bani jötna ok trollkvinna, vegandi Hrungnis, Geirröđar, Ţrívalda, dróttinn Ţjálfa ok Rösku, dólgr Miđgarđsorms, fóstri Vingnis ok Hlóru. Svá kvađ Bragi skáld:

42. Vađr lá Viđris arfa
vilgi slakr, er rakđisk,
á Eynćfis öndri,
Jörmungandr at sandi.

Svá kvađ Ölvir hnúfa:

43. Ćstisk allra landa
umbgjörđ ok sonr Jarđar.

Svá kvađ Eilífr:

44. Vreiđr stóđ Vrösku bróđir,
vá gagn fađir Magna;
skelfra Ţórs né Ţjalfa
ţróttar steinn viđ ótta.

Ok sem kvađ Eysteinn Valdason:

45. Leit á brattrar brautar
baug hvassligum augum,
ćstisk áđr at flausti
öggs búđ, fađir Ţrúđar.

Enn kvađ Eysteinn:

46. Sín bjó Sifjar rúni
snarla fram međ karli,
hornstraum getum Hrímnis
hrćra, veiđarfćri.

Ok enn kvađ hann:

47. Svá brá viđr, at, sýjur,
seiđr, renndu fram breiđar,
jarđar, út af borđi
Ulls mágs hnefar skullu.

Svá kvađ Bragi:

48. Hamri fórsk í hćgri
hönd, ţá er allra landa,
ćgir öflugbarđa,
endiseiđs of kenndi.

Svá kvađ Gamli:

49. Ţá er gramr, hinn er svik samđit,
snart Bilskirrnis hjarta,
grundar fisk međ grandi
gljúfrskeljungs nam rjúfa.

Svá kvađ Ţorbjörn dísarskáld:

50. Ţórr hefir Yggs međ árum
Ásgarđ af ţrek varđan.

Svá kvađ Bragi:

51. Ok borđróins barđa
brautar hringr inn ljóti
á haussprengi Hrungnis
harđgeđr neđan starđi.

Enn kvađ Bragi:

52. Vel hafiđ yđrum eykjum
aftr, Ţrívalda, haldit
simbli sumbls of mćrum,
sundrkljúfr níu höfđa.

Svá kvađ Eilífr:

53. Ţröngvir gein viđ ţungum
ţangs rauđbita tangar
kveldrunninna kvinna
kunnleggs alinmunni.

Svá kvađ Úlfr Uggason:

54. Ţjokkvöxnum kvađsk ţykkja
ţikling firinmikla
hafra njóts at höfgum
hćtting megindrćtti.

Ok enn ţetta:

55. Fullöflugr lét fellir
fjall-Gauts hnefa skjalla,
rammt mein var ţat, reyni
reyrar leggs viđ eyra.

56. Víđgymnir laust Vimrar
vađs af fránum nađri
hlusta grunn viđ hrönnum.
Hlaut innan svá minnum.

Hér er hann kallađr jötunn Vimrar vađs. Á heitir Vimur, er Ţórr óđ, ţá er hann sótti til Geirröđargarđa. Ok svá kvađ Vetrliđi skáld:

57. Leggi brauzt ţú Leiknar,
lamđir Ţrívalda,
steypđir Starkeđi,
stéttu of Gjalp dauđa.

Ok svá kvađ Ţorbjörn dísarskáld:

58. Ball í Keilu kolli,
Kjallandi brauzt ţú alla,
áđr draptu Lút ok Leiđa,
léztu dreyra Búseyru;
heftir ţú Hengjankjöftu,
Hyrrokkin dó fyrri;
ţó var snemr in sáma
Svívör numin lífi.

12. Baldrskenningar.

Hvernig skal kenna Baldr? Svá, at kalla hann son Óđins ok Friggjar, ver Nönnu, fađir Forseta, eigandi Hringhorna ok Draupnis, dólgr Hađar, Heljar sinni, Gráta-gođ. Úlfr Uggason hefir kveđit eftir sögu Baldrs langt skeiđ í Húsdrápu, ok ritat er áđr dćmi til ţess, er Baldr er svá kenndr.

13. Njarđarkenningar.

Hvernig skal kenna Njörd? Svá, at kalla hann Vanaguđ eđa Vananiđ eđa Van ok föđur Freys ok Freyju, fégjafa guđ. Svá segir Ţórđr Sjáreksson:

59. Varđ sjalf suna,
nama snotr una,
Kjalarr of tamđi,
kváđut Hamđi,
Gođrún bani,
gođbrúđr Vani,
heldr vel mara,
hjörleik spara.

Hér er ţess getit, er Skađi gekk frá Nirđi, sem fyrr er ritat.

14. Freyskenningar.

Hvernig skal kenna Frey? Svá, at kalla hann son Njarđar, bróđur Freyju ok enn Vanaguđ ok Vananiđ ok Vanr ok árguđ ok fégjafa. Svá kvađ Egill Skalla-Grímsson:

60. Ţví at Grjótbjörn
of gćddan hefir
Freyr ok Njörđr
at féarafli.

Freyr er kallađr Belja dólgr, svá sem kvađ Eyvindr skáldaspillir:

61. Ţá er útröst
jarla bági
Belja dolgs
byggja vildi.

Hann er eigandi Skíđblađnis ok galtar ţess, er Gullinbursti heitir, svá sem hér er sagt:

62. Ívalda synir
gengu í árdaga
Skíđblađni at skapa,
skipa bazt,
skírum Frey,
nýtum Njarđar bur.

Svá segir Úlfr Uggason:

63. Ríđr á börg til borgar
böđfróđr sonar Óđins Freyr ok folkum stýrir
fyrstr inum gulli byrsta.

Hann heitir ok Slíđrugtanni.

15. Heimdallarkenningar.

Hvernig skal Heimdall kenna? Svá, at kalla hann son níu mćđra eđa vörđ gođa, svá sem fyrr er ritat, eđa hvíta ás, Loka dólg mensćkir Freyju. Heimdallar höfuđ heitir sverđ. Svá er sagt, at hann var lostinn mannshöfđi í gegnum. Um ţat er kveđit í Heimdallar galdri, ok er síđan kallat höfuđ mjötuđr Heimdallar. Sverđ heitir manns mjötuđr. Heimdallr er eigandi Gulltopps. Hann er ok tilsćkir Vágaskers ok Singasteins. Ţá deilđi hann viđ Loka um Brísingamen. Hann heitir ok Vindlér. Úlfr Uggason kvađ í Húsdrápu langa stund eftir ţeiri frásögu, ok er ţess ţar getit, at ţeir váru í selalíkjum. Hann er ok sonr Óđins.

16. Týskenningar.

Hvernig skal kenna Tý? Svá, at kalla hann einhenda ás ok úlfs fóstra, víga guđ, son Óđins.

17. Bragakenningar.

Hvernig skal kenna Braga? Svá, at kalla hann Iđunnar ver, frumsmiđ bragar ok inn síđskeggja ás - af hans nafni er sá kallađr skeggbragi, er mikit skegg hefir - ok sonr Óđins.

18. Víđarskenningar.

Hvernig skal kenna Víđar? Hann má kalla inn ţögla ás, eiganda járnskós, dólg ok bana Fenrisúlfs, hefniás gođanna, byggviás föđurtófta ok son Óđins, bróđur ásanna.

19. Válakenningar.

Hvernig skal kenna Vála? Svá, at kalla hann son Óđins ok Rindar, stjúpson Friggjar, bróđur ásanna, hefniás Baldrs, dólg Hađar ok bana hans, byggvanda föđurtófta.

20. Hađarkenningar.

Hvernig skal kenna Höđ? Svá, at kalla hann blinda ás, Baldrs bana, skjótanda Mistilteins, son Óđins, Heljar sinna, Vála dólg.












 


     
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