31. Kennings for the heavens

"How should the heaven be periphrased? Thus: call it Skull of Ymir, and hence, Giant's Skull; Task or Burden of the Dwarves, or Helm of Vestri and Austri, Sudri, or Nordri; Land of the Sun, of the Moon, and of the Stars of Heaven, of the Wains and the Winds; Helm, or House, of the Air and the Earth and the Sun. So sang Arnrr Earls'-Skald: So large of gifts ne'er mounted
Young Lord of Shields on ship-deck
'Neath the ancient Skull of Ymir:
Splendid this Prince's largess.

And as he sang again:

Bright grows the sun at dusking,
The earth sinks into the dark sea,
The Toil of Austri bursteth;
All the ocean on the fells breaks.

Thus sang Bdvarr the Halt:

For never 'neath the Sun's Plain
Shall come a nobler Land-Ward,
Keener in battle-onset,
Nor a brother of Ingi better.

And as Thjdlfr of Hvin sang:

Jrd's Son drove to the steel-play
(High swelled the godlike anger
In the mind of Meili's Brother),
And the Moon-Way 'neath him quivered.

Even as sang Ormr Barrey's-Skald:

Lady of Draupnir's gore-streak,
However great I know him,
The wielder (by right he ruleth)
Of the Wain's Road sees me gladly.

Even as the skald Bragi sang:

He who threw the dead eyes
Of Thjazi, Skadi's father,
Into the Winds' Wide Basin
O'er the abodes of men-folk many.

And as Marks sang:

'Tis long since the dear-loved Warder
Of sea-men was born on the wave-girt earth-bottom
Of the Storm-Container; each man praises
The sublime age of the Ring-Dispenser.

Even as Steinn Herdsarson sang:

I sing the holy Ruler
Of the high World-Tent rather
Than men, for very precious
Is He: His praises tell I.

And as Arnrr Earls'-Skald sang:

Help, dear King of Heaven,
The Day's Plain, help my Hermundr.

And as Arnrr sang further:

Soothfast King of the Sun-Tents,
Help stout-hearted Rgnvaldr.

And as Hallvardr sang:

Kntr wards the land, as the Ruler
Of All wards the radiant Fell-Hall.

As Arnrr sang:

Michael, wise of understanding,
Weighs what seems done ill, and good things:
Then the Monarch of the Sun's Helm
At the Doom-Seat parts all mortals.

32. Kennings for the earth

How should one periphrase the earth? Thus: by calling her Flesh of Ymir, and Mother of Thor, Daughter of narr, Odin's Bride, Co-Wife of Frigg and Rindr and Gunnld, Mother-in-law of Sif, Floor and Bottom of the Storm-Hall, Sea of Beasts, Daughter of Night, Sister of Audr and of Day. Even as Eyvindr Skald-Despoiler sang:

Now the beaming gold is hidden
In the body of the Mother
Of the Giants' Foe; the counsels
Of a kindred strong are mighty.

As sang Hallfredr Troublous-Skald:

In council 't was determined
That the King's friend, wise in counsel,
Should wed the Land, sole Daughter
Of narr, greenly wooded.

And he said further:

The Raven-Abode's brave Ruler
Got the broad-faced Bride of Odin,
The Land, with kingly counsels
Of weapons, lured unto him.

Even as Thjdlfr-sang:

The Ruler, glad in Warriors,
In the rowed hull doth fasten
The ships of men to the strand's end,
At the head of the sea keel-ridden.

As Hallfredr sang:

Full loath to let the Land slip
I hold the lordly Spear-Prince
Audr's sister is subjected
To the splendid Treasure-Spender.

Thus sang Thjdlfr:

Far off the dart-slow sluggard Stood, when the Sword-Inciter In ancient days took to him The unripe Co-Wife of Rindr.

33. Kennings for the sea

How should one periphrase the sea? Thus: by calling it Ymir's Blood; Visitor of the Gods; Husband of Rn; Father of gir's Daughters, of them who are called Himinglva, Dfa, Bldughadda, Hefring, Udr, Hrnn, Bylgja, Bra, Kolga; Land of Rn and of gir's Daughters, of Ships and of ships' names, of the Keel, of Beaks, of Planks and Seams, of Fishes, of Ice; Way and Road of Sea-Kings; likewise Encircler of Islands; House of Sands and of Kelp and of Reefs; Land of Fishing-gear, of Sea-Fowls, and of Fair Wind. Even as Ormr Barrey's-Skald sang:

On the gravelly beach of good ships
Grates the Blood of Ymir.

As Refr sang:

The mild deer of the masthead beareth
O'er the murky water from the westward
Her wave-pressed bows; the land I look for
Before the beak; the Whale-Home shallows.

Even as Steinn sang:

When the fallow fell-wall's Whirlwinds
Wove o'er the waves full fiercely,
And gir's storm-glad daughters
Tore, of grim frost begotten.

And as Refr sang:

Gymir's wet-cold Spae-Wife
Wiles the Bear of Twisted Cables
Oft into gir's wide jaws,
Where the angry billow breaketh.

It is said here that gir and Gymir are both the same. And he sang further:

And the Sea-Peak's Sleipnir slitteth
The stormy breast rain-driven,
The wave, with red stain running
Out of white Rn's mouth.

As Einarr Sklason sang:

The stern snow-wind has thrust out
With strength, the ship from landward:
The Swan-Land's steed sees Iceland
Into the surf receding.

And as he sang further:

Many a stiff rowlock straineth,
And the noisy Strand of Fish-Gear,
The Sea, the lands o'ercometh:
Men's hands oft span the stays.

And he sang yet further:

The gray Isle-Fetter urges
Heiti's raven-ship onward;
Gold beaks the fleet ships carry:
Rich that faring to the Chieftain.

And he sang again:

The Isle-Rim autumn chilly
Impels the dock's cold snowshoe.

And thus also:

The cool lands' Surging-Girdle
Before the beaks springs asunder.

As Snbjorn sang:

They say nine brides of skerries
Swiftly move the Sea-Churn
Of Grtti's Island-Flour-Bin
Beyond the Earth's last outskirt,--
They who long the corny ale ground
Of Amld; the Giver
Of Rings now cuts with ship's beak
The Abiding-Place of boat-sides.

Here the sea is called Amldi's Churn.

As Einarr Sklason sang:

The sturdy drive-nails weaken
In the swift swirl, where paleth
Rakni's Heaving Plain: wind
Puffs the reefs against the stays.

34. Kennings for the sun

How should one periphrase the sun? By calling her Daughter of Mundilfari, Sister of the Moon, Wife of Glenr, Fire of Heaven and of the Air. Even as Skli Thorsteinsson sang:

Glenr's god-blithe Bed-Mate wadeth
Into the Goddess's mansion
With rays; then the good light cometh
Of gray-sarked Mni downward.

Thus sang Einarr Sklason:

Whereso the lofty flickering
Flame of the World's Hall swimmeth

O'er our loved friend, who hateth
And lavisheth the sea-gold.

35. Kennings for the wind

How should the wind be periphrased? Thus: call it Son of Fornjtr, Brother of the Sea and of Fire, Scathe or Ruin or Hound or Wolf of the Wood or of the Sail or of the Rigging.

Thus spake Sveinn in the Nordrsetu-drpa:

First began to fly
Fornjtr's sons ill-shapen.

36. Kennings for fire

How should one periphrase fire? Thus: call it Brother of the Wind and the Sea, Ruin and Destruction of Wood and of Houses, Hlfr's Bane, Sun of Houses.

37. Kennings for winter

How should winter be periphrased? Thus: call it Son of Vindsvalr, Destruction of Serpents, Tempest Season. Thus sang Ormr Steinthrsson:

To the blind man I proffer
This blessing: Vindsvalr's Son.

Thus sang sgrmr:

The warlike Spoil-Bestower,
Lavish of Wealth, that winter--
Snake's-Woe--in Thrndheim tarried;
The folk knew thy true actions.

38. Kennings for summer

How should one periphrase summer? Thus: call it Son of Svsudr and Comfort of Serpents, and Growth of Men. Even as Egill Skallagrmsson sang:

We shall wave our swords, O Dyer
Of Wolf's Teeth, make them glitter:
A deed we have for wreaking
In the Comfort of Dale-Serpents.

39. Kennings for man and for woman

How should man be periphrased? By his works, by that which he gives or receives or does; he may also be periphrased in terms of his property, those things which he possesses, and, if he be liberal, of his liberality; likewise in terms of the families from which he descended, as well as of those which have sprung from him. How is one to periphrase him in terms of these things? Thus, by calling him accomplisher or performer of his goings or his conduct, of his battles or sea-voyages or huntings or weapons or ships. And because he is a tester of weapons and a winner of battles,--the words for 'winner' and 'wood' being the same, as are also those for tester' and 'rowan,'--therefore, from these phrases, skalds have called man Ash or Maple, Grove, or other masculine tree-names, and periphrased him in such expressions in terms of battles or ships or possessions. It is also correct to periphrase man with all the names of the sir; also with giant-terms, and this last is for the most part for mocking or libellous purposes. Periphrasis with the names of elves is held to be favorable.

"Woman should be periphrased with reference to all female garments, gold and jewels, ale or wine or any other drink, or to that which she dispenses or gives; likewise with reference to ale-vessels, and to all those things which it becomes her to perform or to give. It is correct to periphrase her thus: by calling her giver or user of that of which she partakes. But the words for 'giver' and 'user' are also names of trees; therefore woman is called in metaphorical speech by all feminine tree-names. Woman is periphrased with reference to jewels or agates for this reason: in heathen times what was called a 'stone-necklace,' which they wore about the neck, was a part of a woman's apparel; now it is used figuratively in such a way as to periphrase woman with stones and all names of stones. Woman is also metaphorically called by the names of the synjur or the Valkyrs or Norris or women of supernatural kind. It is also correct to periphrase woman in terms of all her conduct or property or family.

40. Kennings for gold

How should gold be periphrased? Thus: by calling it gir's Fire, and Needles of Glasir, Hair of Sif, Snood of Fulla, Freyja's Tears, Talk and Voice and Word of Giants, Draupnir's Drop and Rain or Shower of Draupnir, or of Freyja's Eyes, Otter's Ransom, Forced Payment of the sir, Seed of Fris-Plain, Cairn-Roof of Hlgi, Fire of all Waters and of the Hand, Stone and Reef or Gleam of the Hand.


31. Himinskenningar.

Hvernig skal kenna himin? Sv, at kalla hann Ymis haus ok ar af jtuns haus ok erfii ea byri dverganna ea hjlm Vestra ok Austra, Sura, Norra, land slar ok tungls ok himintungla, vagna ok vera, hjlmr ea hs lofts ok jarar ok slar. Sv kva Arnrr jarlaskld:

66. Ungr skjldungr stgr aldri
jafnmildr vi skildan
ess var grams, und gmlum,
gng rausn, Ymis hausi.

Ok enn sem hann kva:

67. Bjrt verr sl at svartri,
skkr fold mar dkkvan,
brestr erfii Austra,
allr glymr sjr fjllum.

Sv kva Bvarr balti:

68. Alls engi verr Inga
undir slar grundu
bvar hvatr n betri
brr landreki ri.

Ok sem kva jlfr inn hvinverski:

69. k at sarnleiki
Jarar sunr, en duni,
mr svall Meila bla,
mna vegr und hnum.

Sv sem kva Ormr Barreyjarskld:

70. Hvgi er, Draupnis drgar
ds, ramman spyr ek vsa,
s rr, valdr, fyr veldi,
vagnbrautar mr fagnar.

Sv sem kva Bragi skld:

71. Hinn er varp va
vinda ndurdsar
of manna sjt margra
mundlaug fur augum.

Ok sem Marks kva:

72. Fjarri hefir, at fisk drri
flotna vrr lkers botni,
hva leyfir hverr mar vi
hringvarpaar, gjalfri kringum.

Sv sem kva Steinn Herdsarson:

73. Hs kve ek helgan rsi
heimtjalds at drag eima,
mr tsk fram, en fyra
fyrr, v at hann er dyrri.

Ok sem kva Arnrr jarlaskld:

74. Hjalp , drr konungr, drum,
dags grundar, Hermundi.

Ok enn kva Arnrr:

75. Sar stillir, hjalp snjllum,
sltjalda, Rgnvaldi.

Ok sem kva Hallvarr:

76. Kntr verr jr sem tran
alls drttinn sal fjalla.

Sem Arnrr kva:

77. Mkll vegr at er misgrt ykkir
mannvits frr ok allt it ga;
tyggi skiptir san seggjum
slar hjalms dmistli.

32. Jararkenningar.

Hvernig skal jr kenna? Sv, at kalla hana Ymis hold ok mur rs, dttur nars, bri ins, elju Friggjar ok Rindar ok Gunnlaar, svru Sifjar, glf ok botn vera hallar, sjr dranna, dttir Nttar, systir Aus ok Dags. Sv sem kva Eyvindr skldaspillir:

78. N er alfrull elfar
jtna dolgs of folginn,
r eru rammrar jar
rk, mur lki. Sem kva Hallfrer vandrskld:

79. R lukusk, at s, san,
snjallrr konungs spjalli
tti einga-dttur
nars vii grna.

Ok enn sagi hann:

80. Breileita gat bri
Bleygs at sr teyga
stefnir stvar hrafna
stla rkismlum.

Sv sem kva jlfr:

81. tan bindr vi enda
elgvers glur hersa
hreins vi, hfi rnum,
hafs botni far gotna.

Sem Hallfrer kva:

82. v hygg fleygjanda frgjan,
ferr jr und menverri
tran, eina at lta
Aus systur mjk trauan.

Sv kva jlfr:

83. Dolgljss, hefir dsi
darrlatr stait fjarri,
endr er elju Rindar
mynda tk skyndir.

33. Sjvarkenningar.

Hvernig skal s kenna? Sv, at kalla hann Ymis bl, heimskir goanna, verr Rnar, fair gisdtra, eira er sv heita Himinglva, Dfa, Blughadda, Hefring, Ur, Hrnn, Bylgja, Bra, Klga, land Rnar ok gisdtra ok skipa ok sskips heita, kjalar, stla, sa, sju, fiska, sa, skonunga lei ok brautir, eigi sr hringr eyjanna, hs sanda ok angs ok skerja, dorgar land ok sfugla, byrjar. Sv sem kva Ormr Barreyjarskld:

84. tan gnr eyri
Ymis bl fara gra.

Sv kva Refr:

85. Vgeysta berr vestan,
vtti ek lands fyr brandi,
hvalmni skefr, hna
hgdr of lg bgu.

Sv sem kva Sveinn:

86. er lreifar fu
gis dtr ok tttu
fls, vi frost of alnar,
fjallgars rokur harar.

Ok sem kva Refr:

87. Frir bjrn, ar er bra
brestr, undinna festa
oft gis kjafta
rsvl Gymis vlva.

Hr er sagt, at allt er eitt gir ok Hlr ok Gymir. Ok enn kva hann:

88. En sgnpu Sleipnir
sltr rdrifinn hvtrar
Rnar, rauum steini
runnit, brjst r munni.

Sem kva Einarr Sklason:

89. Harr hefir rt fr jru
lvindr, svana strindar
blakkr ltr sog skkva
sngrund, skipi hrundit.

Ok enn sem hann kva:

90. Margr rss, en drfr dorgar
dynstrnd svig lndum,
spend vera stg stundum,
stirr keipr, fira greipum.

Ok enn kva hann:

91. Grams bera gollna spnu,
gfug fer er s jfri,
sktr holmfjturr Heita
hrafni, snekkju stafnar.

Enn sem hann kva:

92. Haustkld skotar hlum
holmrnd varar ndri.

Ok enn sv:

93. Sundr springr svalra landa
sverrigjr fyr brum.

Sem Snbjrn kva:

94. Hvatt kvea hrra Grtta
hergrimmastan skerja
t fyrir jarar skauti
eylrs nu brir,
r er, lungs, fyrir lngu,
lmeldr, skipa hlar
baugskerir rstr bari
bl, Amla mlu.

Hr er kallat hafit Amla kvern. - Enn sem kva Einarr Sklason:

95. Viknar ramr , Rakna,
reksaumr fluga-straumi,
dks hrindr bl, ar er bleikir
bifgrund, stag rifjum.

34. Slarkenningar.

Hvernig skal kenna sl? Sv, at kalla hana dttur Mundilfara, systur Mna, kona Glens, eldr himins ok lofts. Sv sem kva Skli orsteinsson:

96. Glens beja ver gyju
gobl v, san
ljs kemr gtt me geislum
grnserks ofan Mna.

Sv kva Einarr Sklason:

97. Hvargi er Beita borgar
blgrimmustum skla
hr of hnossvin rum
heims vafrlogi sveimar.

35. Vindskenningar.

Hvernig skal kenna vind? Sv, at kalla hann son Fornjts, brur gis ok elds, brjt viar, skai ok bani ea hundr e vargr viar ea segls ea seglreia. Sv sagi Sveinn Norrsetudrpu:

98. Tku fyrst til fjka
Fornjts synir ljtir.

36. Eldskenningar.

Hvernig skal kenna eld? Sv, at kalla hann brur vinds ok gis, bana ok grand viar ok hsa, Hlfs bani, sl hsanna.

37. Vetrarkenningar.

Hvernig skal kenna vetr? Sv, at kalla hann son Vindsvals ok bana orma, hrml. Sv kva Ormr Steinrsson:

99. R ek enna mg manni
Vindvals una blindum. Sv kva sgrmr:

100. Sigrgir var san
seimrr rndheimi,
j veit nar ir,
ann orms-trega, sannar.

38. Sumarkenningar.

Hvernig skal kenna sumar? Sv, at kalla son Svsaar ok lkn ormanna ok grr manna. Sv sem kva Egill Skalla-Grmsson:

101. Upp skulum rum sverum,
ulfs tannlitur, glitra,
eigum d at drgja
dalmiskunn fiska.

39. Mannkenningar ok kvenkenningar.

Hvernig skal kenna manninn? Mann skal kenna vi verk sn, at er hann veitir ea iggr ea gerir. Hann m ok kenna til eignar sinnar, eirar er hann , ok sv ef hann gaf, sv ok vi ttir r, er hann kom af, sv r, er fr honum kmu. Hvernig skal hann kenna vi essa hluti? Sv, at kalla hann vinnanda ea fremjanda fara sinna ea athafnar, vga ea sfara ea veia ea vpna ea skipa. Ok fyrir v at hann er reynir vpnanna ok vir vganna, allt eitt ok vinnandi. Vir heitir tr. Reynir heitir ok tr. Af essum heitum hafa skldin kallat manninn ask ea hlyn, lund ea rum viarheitum karlkenndum ok kennt til vga ea skipa ea fjr. Mann er ok rtt at kenna til allra saheita. Kennt er ok vi jtnaheiti, ok er at flest h ea lastmli. Vel ykkir kennt til lfa.

Konu skal kenna til alls kvenbnaar, gulls ok gimsteina, ls ea vns ea annars drykkjar, ess er hon selr ea gefr, sv ok til lgagna ok allra eira hluta, er henni samir at vinna ea veita. Rtt er at kenna hana sv at kalla hana selju ea lg ess, er hon milar, en selja ea lg, at eru tr. Fyrir v er kona kllu til kenningar llum kvenkenndum viarheitum. En fyrir v er kona kennd til gimsteina ea glersteina, at at var forneskju kvinnabnar, er kallat var steinasrvi, er r hfu hlsi sr. N er sv frt til kenningar, at konan er n kennd vi stein ok vi ll steinsheiti. Kona er ok kennd vi allar synjur ea valkyrjur ea nornir ea dsir. Konu er ok rtt at kenna vi alla athfn sna ea vi eign ea tt.

40. Gullskenningar.

Hvernig skal kenna gull? Sv, at kalla at eld gis ok barr Glasis, haddr Sifjar, hfuband Fullu, grtr Freyju, munntal ok rdd ok or jtna, dropa Draupnis ok regn ea skr Draupnis ea augna Freyju, otrgjld, naugjald sanna, s Frisvalla, haugak Hlga, eldr allra vatna ok handar, grjt ok sker ea blik handar.


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