Helgakvia Hundingsbana I


Hr hefr upp kvi fr Helga Hundingsbana ok eira Hbrodds.

Here begins the poem of Helgi Hundingsbane and of Hǫbroddr.(1)


1. 1.

r var alda, It was early in the ages,

at er arar gullu, when eagles screamed,

hnigu heilg vtn holy waters fell

af Himinfjllum; from Sky-fells;

hafi Helga then Helgi

inn hugumstra the great-hearted

Borghildr borit was borne by Borgildr(2)

Brlundi. in Brlundr.

 

2. 2.

Ntt var b, Night was falling in the dwelling,

nornir kmu, norns came,

r er lingi they who a prince's(3)

aldr of skpu; lifetime shape;

ann bu fylki then they bade him

frgstan vera become the most renowned chieftain

ok bulunga and be thought

beztan ykkja. the best king.

 

3. 3.

Sneru r af afli They twisted with might

rlgttu, threads of rlǫg,

er borgir braut as the hills broke(4)

Brlundi(5); in Brlundr;

r of greiddu they laid out

gullin smu golden cords

ok und mnasal and under the moon's hall(6)

mijan festu. fastened it in the middle.

 

4. 4.

r austr ok vestr East and west they

enda flu, hid the ends,

ar tti lofungr there the prince owned(7)

land milli; the land in between;

br nift Nera Neri's kinswoman made

norrvega one fast

einni festi, to northward,(8)

ey ba hon halda. bade it hold forever.

 

5. 5.

Eitt var at angri One thing was a danger

Ylfinga ni to the child of the Ylfings

ok eiri meyju, and the lady

er mun fddi; who bore the love;(9)

hrafn kva at hrafni, raven said to raven

- sat hm meii it sat on a high branch,

andvanr tu -: lacking eating -:

"ek veit nkkut. "I know something.

 

6. 6.

Stendr brynju He stands in mail-shirt,

burr Sigmundar the son of Sigmundr,

dgrs eins gamall, one day old,

n er dagr kominn; now day is come;

hvessir augu [his] eyes flash

sem hildingar, like a war-leader's,

s er varga vinr, he is a friend of wolves,(10)

vit skulum teitir." we should [be] glad."

 

7. 7.

Drtt tti s The household thought him

dglingr vera, to be a Dag-descendant,(11)

kvu me gumnum saying that among men

g r komin; good years [were] come;

sjalfr gekk vsi the king himself came

r vgrimu from the war-storm(12)

ungum fra to bring the young

trlauk grami. warrior a glorious leek.(13)

 

8. 8.

Gaf hann Helga nafn He gave him the name Helgi

ok Hringstai, and Hringstair,

Slfjll, Snfjll Slfjll, Snfjll

ok Sigarsvllu, and Sigarsvellir,

Hringst, Htn Hringstǫ, Htn

ok Himinvanga, and Himinvangar,

blorm binn [and] an ornamented blood-serpent(14)

brr Sinfjtla. to the brother of Sinfjǫtli.(15)

 

9. 9.

nam at vaxa Then began to grow

fyr vina brjsti before his friends' breasts

almr trborinn the noble-born elm,(16)

ynis ljma; in the light of delight;

hann galt ok gaf he dealt out and gave

gull verungu, gold to the hirdmen,

spari eigi hilmir the ruler did not spare

hodd blrkinn. the hoards, blood-driven.(17)

 

10. 10.

Skammt lt vsi A short time the king(18) let [himself]

vgs at ba; wait for war;

er fylkir var when the chieftain was

fimmtn vetra, fifteen winters old,

ok hann haran lt [and] he laid low

Hunding veginn Hunding the hard

ann er lengi r who long ruled

lndum ok egnum. lands and thegns.

 

11. 11.

Kvddu san Afterwards demanded

Sigmundar bur from the child of Sigmundr

aus ok hringa gold and rings

Hundings synir, the sons of Hundingr,

v at eir ttu because they had

jfri at gjalda to repay the king(19)

fjrnm mikit for great seizure of wealth

ok fur daua. and [their] father's death.

 

12. 12.

Lt-at bulungr The ruler did not grant

btir uppi compensation(20)

n nija in heldr but rather did not let the kinsmen

nefgjld fa; take wergild;

vn kva hann mundu he said they would(21) expect

vers ins mikla the great storm

grra geira of grey(22) spears

ok gremi ins. and the anger of inn.(23)

 

13. 13.

Fara hildingar The war-leaders went

hjrstefnu til, to the sword-meeting,

eirar er lgu which was appointed

at Logafjllum; at Logafjǫll;

sleit Fra fri the peace of Fri was broken off

fjnda milli; amidst the enemies;

fara Viris grey Virir's(24) hounds went

valgjrn of ey. eager for slaughter across the island.

 

14. 14.

Settisk vsi, The king sat down

er vegit hafi after he had slain

Alf ok Eyjlf, Alfr and Eyjlfr

und arasteini, under an eagle rock(25)

Hjrvar ok Hvar, Hjǫrvarr and Hvarr,

Hundings sonu; Hunding's sons;

farit hafi hann allri he had killed all the

tt geirmmis. race of the spear-Mmir(26).

 

15. 15.

br ljma Then light burst forth

af Logafjllum, from Logafjǫll,

en af eim ljmum and from that light

leiftrir kmu, came lightnings,

-- -- --

hvar(27) und hjalmum high under helms

Himinvanga, in Himinvangr,(28)

brynjur vru eira their mail-shirts were

bli stokknar, splashed with blood,

en af geirum and from their spears

geislar stu. stretched beams of light.

 

16. 16.

Fr rliga From early on,

r lfi from wolf-forest,(29)

dglingr at v the Dag-descendant thus [asked]

dsir surnar, the southern dsir,

ef r vildi heim whether they wanted to go home

me hildingum with the war-leader

ntt fara; that night;

rymr var alma. there was a din of bowstrings.

 

17. 17.

En af hesti But from her horse

Hgna dttir, Hǫgni's daughter,

- lddi randa rym, - - the clashing of shields was waning -

rsi sagi: said to the chieftain:

"Hygg ek, at vr eigim "I think we have

arar sslur other tasks

en me baugbrota than with a ring-breaker

bjr at drekka. to drink beer."

 

18. 18.

Hefir minn fair My father has

meyju sinni pledged his girl

grimmum heitit to the grim

Granmars syni, son of Granmar,(30)

en ek hef, Helgi, but I, Helgi, have

Hbrodd kveinn called Hǫbroddr

konung neisan the king blameless

sem kattar son. as a cat's son.

 

19. 19.

(31) kemr fylkir Yet the chieftain [will] come

fra ntta, in a few nights,

nema hnum vsir unless you show a

valstefnu til war-meeting to him

ea mey nemir or take the maid

fr mildingi." from the prince."

 

Helgi kva: Helgi said:

20. 20.

"Uggi eigi "Do not fear

sungs bana; sungr's slayer;

fyrr mun dolga dynr, first there will [be] a din of swords,

nema ek daur sak." unless I be dead."(32)

 

21. 21.

Sendi ru The supreme ruler(33) sent

allvaldr aan messengers from there

of land ok um lg by land and by sea

leiar at bija, to call a levy,

igngan abundant

gnar ljma light of gn(34)

brgnum bja he pledged to warriors

ok burum eira. and their sons.

 

22. 22.

"Bii skjtliga "Bid [them] swiftly

til skipa ganga go to ships

ok r Brandeyju and be ready

bna vera." from Brandey."(35)

aan bei engill, then the prince waited

unz ingat kmu until there came there

halir hundmargir hundreds of fighters

r Heinseyju. from Heinsey.

 

23. 23.

Ok ar af strndum And there from the beaches(36)

r Stafnsnesi off Stafnsnes

beit her t skriu out slipped the host, fair(37)

ok bin gulli; and covered in gold;

spuri Helgi Helgi asked

Hjrleif at v: Hjǫrleifr about this:

"hefir kannaa "Have you reviewed

koni neisa?" the upright gentlemen?"

 

24. 24.

En ungr konungr And the young king

rum sagi, said to the other,

seint kva at telja slow [he] said [it would be] to account

for

af Trnueyri from Trnueyri

langhfu skip the long-headed ships

und lndum, with voyagers aboard

au er rvasund that into Ǫrvasund

tan fru. were heading out.

 

25. 25.

"Tolf hundru "Twelve hundred(38)

tryggra manna; trusty men;

er Htnum yet there is in Htn

halfu fleira a greater by half

vgli konungs; war-host of the king;

vn erum rmu." we're liable [to have] a battle."

 

26. 26.

Sv br strir So the leader took

stafntjldum af, off the stem-tents,(39)

at mildinga so that the prince's

mengi vaki, host awoke,

ok dglingar and the king's men

dagsbrn sa saw the brows of day(40)

ok siklingar and the chieftain's men

sneru upp vi tr tied up to the mast

vefnistingum the woven sails

Varinsfiri. in Varinsfjord.

 

27. 27.

Var ra ymr There began a humming of oars

ok jrna glymr, and clashing of irons,

brast rnd vi rnd, shield struck against shield,

reru vkingar; the vikings rowed;

eisandi gekk dashing through the waves went

und lingum laden with the chief's men

lofungs floti the prince's fleet,

lndum fjarri. out from land.

 

28. 28.

Sv var at heyra, So it could be heard

er saman kmu as there came together

kolgu systir Kolga's sister(41)

ok kilir langir, and the long keels,

sem bjrg ea brim as if mountains and surf(42)

brotna myndi. were breaking together.

 

29. 29.

Draga ba Helgi Helgi ordered drawn

h segl ofar, the sails higher up,

var-at hrnnum the waves'

hfn ingloga, haven did not break its agreement,(43)

er gurlig although the awful

gis dttir daughter of gir

stagstjrnmrum the stay-steer-steeds(44)

steypa vildi. wished to drown.

 

30. 30.

En eim sjalfum But those themselves

Sigrn ofan Sigrn from above,

folkdjrf of barg courageous, protected,

ok fari eira; and their vessel;

snerisk ramliga strongly escaped

Rn r hendi from Rn's hands

gjalfrdr konungs the king's surf-beast(45)

at Gnipalundi. off Gnipalundr.

 

31. 31.

Sat ar um aftan There it rode at evening

Unavgum, in Unavgar,

flaust fagrbin the gaily bedecked ships

fljta knttu; did float;

en eir sjalfir but those themselves

fr Svarinshaugi from Svarinshaugr

me hermar hug in angry mood

her knnuu. searched out the armed force.

 

32. 32.

Fr gborinn From god-born

Gumundr at v: Gumundr thus:

"Hverr er landreki, "Who is the land-protector

s er lii strir who guides the force

ok hann feiknali and the huge host(46)

frir at landi?" leads to land?"

 

33. 33.

Sinfjtli kva Sinfjǫtli said

- slng upp vi r - he raised on the sail-yard

rauum skildi, a red shield,(47)

rnd var r gulli; the rim was of gold;

ar var sundvrr, there was a sea-warder

s er svara kunni who could answer

ok vi linga and with princes

orum skipta --: bandy words:--

 

34. 34.

"Segu at aftan, "Say this in the evening,

er svnum gefr when you give the swine [fodder]

ok tkr yrar and fetch your bitches

teygir at solli, to the swill,

at s Ylfingar that Ylfingar

austan komnir have come from the east

gunnar gjarnir keen men

fyr Gnipalundi. from Gnipalundr.

 

35. 35.

ar mun Hbroddr There Hǫbroddr will

Helga finna find Helgi,

flugtrauan gram the flight-loth warrior,

flota mijum, amidst the fleet,

s er oft hefir who has often

rnu sadda, sated eagles,

mean kvernum while you at querns

kystir jar." kissed thrall-women."

 

Gumundr kva:(48) Gumundr said:

36. 36.

"Ftt mantu, fylkir, "Little you know, chieftain,

fornra spjalla, of ancient tales,

er lingum when you princes

snnu bregr; untruthfully challenge;

hefir etnar you have eaten

ulfa krsir wolves' dainties

ok brr num and been the death

at bana orit, of your brothers,

oft sr sogin often sucked wounds

me svlum munni, with cold mouth,

hefr hreysi [you] have in rock-dens

hvarleir skriit." slunk, ever-loathed."

 

Sinfjtli kva: Sinfjǫtli said:

37. 37.

" vart vlva "You were a vǫlva

Varinseyju, on Varinsey,

skollvs kona, a crafty woman,

bartu skrk saman; you put together lies;

kvaztu engi mann you said you did not want

eiga vilja, to have a man,

segg brynjaan, a fighter in mail,

nema Sinfjtla. except for Sinfjǫtli.

 

38. 38.

vart, in ska, You were, damaging woman,

skass, valkyrja, ogress, a valkyrie,

tul, mtlig fierce, loathsome

at Alfur; to Allfather;

mundu einherjar the einherjar would have

allir berjask, all fought each other,

svevs kona, fickle(49) woman,

of sakar nar. on account of you.

 

39. 39.

Nu ttu vit Nine we two had

nesi Sgu on Sga's headland

ulfa alna, of wolves in all;

ek var einn fair eira." I alone was their father."

 

Gumundr kva: Gumundr said:

40. 40.

"Fair var-at-tu "Father you were not

fenrisulfa of Fenris wolves,

llum ellri, older than all,

sv at ek muna, the way I recall it,

sz ik geldu since you were gelded

fyr Gnipalundi outside Gnipalundr

ursa meyjar by thurs(50) maidens

rsnesi. on Thorsness.

 

41. 41.

Stjpr vartu Siggeirs, You were Siggeir's stepson,

ltt und stum heima, you lay under the places of homes,(51)

vargljum vanr used to wolf-songs

vium ti; out in the withies;

kmu r ggn all kinds of destructiveness came

ll at hendi, to your hands,

er brr num when you your brother's

brjst raufair; breast tore open;

gerir ik frgjan you made yourself famous

af firinverkum." for foul deeds."

 

Sinfjtli kva: Sinfjǫtli said:

42. 42.

" vart brr Grana "You were Grani's(52) mate

Brvelli, at Brvǫllr,

gullbitlu vart gold-bridled you were

gr til rsar; readied for the race;

hafa ek r mri I have you weary

marg skei riit many a course ridden,

svangri und sli, skinny under the saddle,

simul, forbergis." ever, downhill.(53) "

 

Gumundr kva: Gumundr said:

43. 43.

"Sveinn ttir "You seemed an uncouth

silauss vera, youth to be,

er Gullnis when you Gullnir's

geitr molkair, goats were milking,

en annat sinn and another time,

Imar dttir [to be] Imi's daughter,

ttrughypja. [in] tattered frock.

Vill tlu lengri?" Do you want a longer tale?"

 

Sinfjtli kva: Sinfjǫtli said:

44. 44.

"Fyrr vilda ek "Sooner would I

at Frekasteini at Frekastein

hrafna seja feed ravens

hrum num with your dead body

en tkr yrar than fetch your bitches

teygja at solli to the swill

ea gefa gltum; or give [fodder] to the hogs;(54)

deili grm vi ik." let the fiends deal with you."

 

Helgi kva: Helgi said:

45. 43.

"Vri ykkr, Sinfjtli, "Sinfjǫtli, it would be for you both

Smra miklu much more seemly

gunni at heyja to wage war

ok glaa rnu, and gladden eagles,

en s ntum than useless

orum at bregask, words to wield against each other,

tt hringbrotar although ring-breakers

heiftir deili. do pursue feuds.

 

46. 46.

ykkja-t mr gir I do not think [they are] good,

Granmars synir, Granmarr's sons,

dugir siklingum yet it behooves kings

satt at mla; to speak the truth;

eir hafa markat they showed

Minsheimum, at Minsheimar

at hug hafa that they have the courage

hjrum at brega." to wield swords."

 

47. 47.

eir af rki Mightily off they(55)

renna ltu made run

Svipu ok Sveggju Svipu and Sveggju(56)

Slheima til to Slheimar

dala dggtta, [through] dewy dales,

dkkvar hlir; dark ravines;

skalf Mistar marr the steed of Mist(57) shook

hvar er megir fru. where the men rode.

 

48. 48.

Mttu eir tyggja They met the leader

tnhlii, in the courtyard gateway,

sgu strliga said opposing

stilli kmu; kings had come;

ti st Hbroddr outside stood Hǫbroddr,

hjalmi faldinn, clad in his helm,

hugi hann jrei he considered the riding

ttar sinnar: of his kinsmen:

"Hv er hermar litr "Why is there flushed colouring

Hniflungum?" on Hniflungs?"(58)

 

Gumundr kva: Gumundr said:

49. 49.

"Snask hr at sandi "Here to our sands are turning

snvgir kjlar, lithe keels,

rakka-hirtir mast-ring-harts(59)

ok rar langar, and long yards,

skildir margir, many shields,

skafnar rar, scraped oars,

gfugt li gylfa, a noble host of Gylfi(60),

glair Ylfingar. the glad(61) Ylfings.

 

50. 50.

Ganga fimmtn There are going fifteen

folk upp land, troops up onto shore,

er Sogn t yet out in Sogn there are

sjau sundir; seven thousand;

liggja hr grindum there lie here in the docks(62)

fyr Gnipalundi off Gnipalundr

brimdr blsvrt surf-deer(63) blue-black

ok bin gulli; and decorated with gold,

ar er miklu mest there are by far most

mengi eira; of their forces;

mun-a n Helgi Helgi will not now

hjring dvala." delay the sword-thing(64)."

 

Hbroddr kva: Hǫbroddr said:

51. 51.

"Renni rkn bitlu "Bridle running steeds

til Regininga, for the Regin-thing,

en Sporvitnir and Sporvitnir

at Sparinsheii, for Sparinsheir,

Mlnir ok Mlnir Mlnir and Mlnir

til Myrkviar; to Myrkvir;

lti engi mann let no one

eftir sitja, stay behind

eira er benlogum who a wound-wand(65)

brega kunni. can wield.

 

52. 52.

Bji r Hgna Let send to Hǫgni

ok Hrings sonum, and Hringr's sons,

Atla ok Yngva, Atli and Yngvi,

Alf inum gamla, Alfr the old,

eir r gjarnir they are eager

gunni at heyja; to wage war;

ltum Vlsunga let the Vǫlsungs

virnm fa." have resistance."

 

53. 53.

Svipr einn var at, A swoop it was,

er saman kmu when there came together

flvir oddar the pale swordpoints

at Frekasteini; at Frekasteinn;

ey var Helgi ever was Helgi

Hundings bani Hunding's bane

fyrstr flki, first in the troop,

ar er firar brusk, when men fought,

str mu, fiercest in battle,

alltraur flugar; very loth to flee;

s hafi hilmir that ruler had

hart makarn. a stout mood-acorn.(66)

 

54. 54.

Kmu ar r himni Then there came from the sky

hjalmvtr ofan, down, helmet-wights(67)

- x geira gnr, - the clashing of spears grew

r er grami hlfu; they who shielded the warrior;

kva at Sigrn, then Sigrn said this,

srvitr fluga wound-wise fly(68)

- t hlu skr the ogress's steed(69) ate

af hugins barri -: of Huginn's barley(70)

 

55. 55.

"Heill skaltu, vsi, Hail to you, king,

vira njta, glory in your men,

ttstafr Yngva, stave of the line of Yngvi,

ok una lfi, and enjoy your life,

er fellt hefir for you have felled

inn flugartraua the flight-loth

jfur, ann er olli king, who caused

gis daua. dread of death.(71)

 

56. 56.

Ok r, bulungr(72), And to you, king,

samir bi vel both together well [belong],

rauir baugar red rings(73)

ok in rkja mr; and the noble maiden;

heill skaltu, bulungr, hail to you, king,

bi njta glory in both

Hgna dttur Hǫgni's daughter

ok Hringstaa, and Hringstair(74),

sigrs ok landa. victory and lands.

er skn lokit. Then the action(75) is ended."

 

 

Notes

 

 

1. ok eira Hbrodds is an emendation by the editor, Guni Jnsson. The poem is found only in the Codex Regius. The superscript there ends a h..., with the rest being illegible.

2. Borghildr was Sigmund's first wife; Brlundr was her home.

3. An ǫlingr was properly an owner of odal land; it's one of many words used in poetry for a prince or chief. In the remainder of the verse, fylki(r) technically means the ruler of a fylki or shire, while bulungr is a more or less poetic word for "king".

4. This line makes little sense whether borgir is taken as "(fortified) towns", as it usually means, or "hills", and even if the verb is taken as meaning "shook", far from its usual meanings; the word can also mean "away". Frequently amended to burar Borghildar, "Borghild's son".

5. I have corrected an apparent typo.

6. kenning: the sky

7. i.e., would own

8. reversing the lines for clarity in English.

9. Something about the threat appears to have been lost here.

10. i.e., he will provide lots of fodder for scavengers by fighting battles.

11. king: descendant of King Dagr.

12. kenning: battle

13. garlic?

14. kenning: sword

15. Sigmund's son by his sister, Sign, and hence Helgi's stepbrother.

16. i.e, man

17. Blrkinn is a bit of a puzzle because it must describe hilmir, i.e., Helgi, who has yet to shed blood. The verb reka has many meanings, "wreak" and "drive" being basic; one wants to apply the adjective to hodd and have it mean that the wealth is figuratively blood-"inlaid" or comes from blood-letting.

18. Vsi, like bulungr a more or less poetic word for "king", referred in Verse 8 to someone else, but from this verse on, refers to Helgi. Jǫfurr, which first occurs in the following verse, is also "king".

19. i.e., make him pay

20. Accepting the general emendation to btr; btir means "boots".

21. i.e, could or should

22. Grr, "grey" sometimes has a metaphorical meaning of "malicious, hurtful".

23. Both the storm of spears and the anger of inn are kennings for war, battle.

24. inn's

25. or Arasteinn, a placename

26. kenning: warrior. (Or a proper name, Geirmmir.)

27. (feminine plural): Sophus Bugge's suggested correction for a var in the manuscript. He thought at least two lines were missing.

28. Field of Heaven; may not be a placename.

29. possibly a kenning for battle

30. some re-ordering for sense in English.

31. Bugge's emendation based on Vǫlsungasaga; the manuscript has a, "then".

32. Something is missing here. The manuscript does not have the label that this verse is spoken by Helgi.

33. Just another "ruler" word referring to Helgi, as is engill in the next verse.

34. Kenning for gold; gn is one of the river names listed in the Prose Edda, hence "light of a river", referring to the Rhinegold. However, gn means "terror", so it has been suggested it should be lowercase here, and in "Ffnisml", and be taken as a kenning for swords.

35. Order of the two lines reversed for clarity in English.

36. Emended from stǫndum, which has alternatively been amended to stǫndu, "they stood".

37. Beit is a puzzle. As a noun, one of its meanings is "ship", so possibly we should read beither, "ship-host". However, as a masculine word herr should have a second -r and binn a second -n.

38. A first pair of lines are likely missing here.

39. Awnings in the bow or stern, sheltering the crew as they slept; presumably he ordered them removed rather than doing it personally.

40. Dawn; this pair of half-lines resembles the last pair in "Helgakvia Hundingsbana II", Verse 43.

41. A wave; Kolga (more often Klga) is one of the nine daughters of gir. Why the editor did not capitalise the name is unclear.

42. Ea is usually "or" but this is one of the instances where it has to mean "and". Mountains: i.e., sea cliffs. Vǫlsungasaga makes it clear that there was a storm.

43. A inglogi is a "meeting-liar", someone who breaks a court date, or by extension another obligation to appear; hfn hrnnum is here taken together, "they did not fail to reach the harbour". But the words have been variously amended and interpreted: the crew (hfn) did not fail to meet their appointment with the waves; the seas (hrnn) did not let up on the keels (hfum).

44. A complex kenning for ships; the first part, stag, is a stay in the sense of a rope on a sailing ship.

45. kenning for ship

46. The 110 lines beginning with this one are parallelled in "Helgakvia Hundingsbana II".

47. A declaration of war; a white shield was a sign of peace.

48. Gumundr is one of Hǫbroddr's sons. From now to the end of the flyting, the stage directions are supplied by the editor; however, who speaks which insult can be partially reconstructed from Vǫlsungasaga. There also appears to be something missing somewhere in this verse that would have made it two verses.

49. Following an emendation to sveipvs.

50. A kind of giant; the distinction between a thurs and a jǫtunn is not very clear, although modern Icelanders characterise the thurs as stupid, the jtunn as strong and the risi as big: "Hr sem risi, sterkr sem jtunn, heimskr sem urs".

51. Bugge suggested amending this to hreina, to get "reindeer's lairs".

52. Sigur's horse

53. Unclear line

54. Compare verse 34. Gubrandur Vigfsson and F. York Powell suggested this verse should follow that one as a response.

55. Hǫbrodd's sons on shore

56. names of horses

57. Kenning: either marr is the poetic word for a horse (and Mist is the valkyrie name, correctly capitalized by the editor) and the meaning is "the earth", or marr is the homonym meaning "sea" and "sea of mist" means "the air". The former seems more likely. These four half-lines may be an interpolation.

58. Here used to mean "warriors."

59. Deer of the rings around a mast to which sail-yards are secured: kenning for ships.

60. Although not capitalised by the editor, Gylfi appears here to be the name, used metaphorically as Hniflungar was in the previous stanza.

61. Presumably this means "cheerful about war" or "hearty".

62. probably meaning "at anchor"

63. kenning for ships

64. kenning for battle

65. kenning for sword

66. heart

67. taking vtr as a variant on vttr; the other interpretation would be as hvt, "white". Both ways, the plural seems to have gone missing. Also see srvitr, below.

68. Kenning for valkyrie. Vitr here has also been taken as vttr, and fluga as an adjective: "winged wound-wight." Magicians could bewitch flies and send them to harm enemies.

69. kenning for wolf; giantesses are often said to ride them.

70. Taking hugins to refer to Huginn, one of in's ravens: kenning for the bodies of those killed, raven's food.

71. or gir's death; Gubrandur Vigfsson suggested this was an error for sungr's.

72. Bugge suggested that siklingr, yet another word for "king", may have been the original word here, for alliteration and to avoid repeating the same word below.

73. i.e., gold

74. Already mentioned in Verse 8; some have suggested this verse is an interpolation.

75. Skn may refer to either a military attack or a lawsuit.