Helgakviða Hundingsbana I
Hér hefr upp kvæði frá Helga Hundingsbana ok þeira Höðbrodds.
Here begins the poem of Helgi Hundingsbane and of Hǫðbroddr.(1)
Ár var alda, It was early in the ages,
þat er arar gullu, when eagles screamed,
hnigu heilög vötn holy waters fell
af Himinfjöllum; from Sky-fells;
þá hafði Helga then Helgi
inn hugumstóra the great-hearted
Borghildr borit was borne by Borgildr(2)
í Brálundi. in Brálundr.
Nótt varð í bæ, Night was falling in the dwelling,
nornir kómu, norns came,
þær er öðlingi they who a prince's(3)
aldr of skópu; lifetime shape;
þann báðu fylki then they bade him
frægstan verða become the most renowned chieftain
ok buðlunga and be thought
beztan þykkja. the best king.
Sneru þær af afli They twisted with might
örlögþáttu, threads of örlǫg,
þá er borgir braut as the hills broke(4)
í Brálundi(5); in Brálundr;
þær of greiddu they laid out
gullin símu golden cords
ok und mánasal and under the moon's hall(6)
miðjan festu. fastened it in the middle.
Þær austr ok vestr East and west they
enda fálu, hid the ends,
þar átti lofðungr there the prince owned(7)
land á milli; the land in between;
brá nift Nera Neri's kinswoman made
á norðrvega one fast
einni festi, to northward,(8)
ey bað hon halda. bade it hold forever.
Eitt var at angri One thing was a danger
Ylfinga nið to the child of the Ylfings
ok þeiri meyju, and the lady
er munúð fæddi; who bore the love;(9)
hrafn kvað at hrafni, raven said to raven
- sat á hám meiði it sat on a high branch,
andvanr átu -: lacking eating -:
"ek veit nökkut. "I know something.
Stendr í brynju He stands in mail-shirt,
burr Sigmundar the son of Sigmundr,
dægrs eins gamall, one day old,
nú er dagr kominn; now day is come;
hvessir augu [his] eyes flash
sem hildingar, like a war-leader's,
sá er varga vinr, he is a friend of wolves,(10)
vit skulum teitir." we should [be] glad."
Drótt þótti sá The household thought him
döglingr vera, to be a Dag-descendant,(11)
kváðu með gumnum saying that among men
góð ár komin; good years [were] come;
sjalfr gekk vísi the king himself came
ór vígþrimu from the war-storm(12)
ungum færa to bring the young
ítrlauk grami. warrior a glorious leek.(13)
Gaf hann Helga nafn He gave him the name Helgi
ok Hringstaði, and Hringstaðir,
Sólfjöll, Snæfjöll Sólfjöll, Snæfjöll
ok Sigarsvöllu, and Sigarsvellir,
Hringstöð, Hátún Hringstǫð, Hátún
ok Himinvanga, and Himinvangar,
blóðorm búinn [and] an ornamented blood-serpent(14)
bræðr Sinfjötla. to the brother of Sinfjǫtli.(15)
Þá nam at vaxa Then began to grow
fyr vina brjósti before his friends' breasts
almr ítrborinn the noble-born elm,(16)
ynðis ljóma; in the light of delight;
hann galt ok gaf he dealt out and gave
gull verðungu, gold to the hirdmen,
sparði eigi hilmir the ruler did not spare
hodd blóðrækinn. the hoards, blood-driven.(17)
Skammt lét vísi A short time the king(18) let [himself]
vígs at bíða; wait for war;
þá er fylkir var when the chieftain was
fimmtán vetra, fifteen winters old,
ok hann harðan lét [and] he laid low
Hunding veginn Hunding the hard
þann er lengi réð who long ruled
löndum ok þegnum. lands and thegns.
Kvöddu síðan Afterwards demanded
Sigmundar bur from the child of Sigmundr
auðs ok hringa gold and rings
Hundings synir, the sons of Hundingr,
því at þeir áttu because they had
jöfri at gjalda to repay the king(19)
fjárnám mikit for great seizure of wealth
ok föður dauða. and [their] father's death.
Lét-at buðlungr The ruler did not grant
bótir uppi compensation(20)
né niðja in heldr but rather did not let the kinsmen
nefgjöld fáa; take wergild;
ván kvað hann mundu he said they would(21) expect
veðrs ins mikla the great storm
grára geira of grey(22) spears
ok gremi Óðins. and the anger of Óðinn.(23)
Fara hildingar The war-leaders went
hjörstefnu til, to the sword-meeting,
þeirar er lögðu which was appointed
at Logafjöllum; at Logafjǫll;
sleit Fróða frið the peace of Fróði was broken off
fjánda á milli; amidst the enemies;
fara Viðris grey Viðrir's(24) hounds went
valgjörn of ey. eager for slaughter across the island.
Settisk vísi, The king sat down—
þá er vegit hafði after he had slain
Alf ok Eyjólf, Alfr and Eyjólfr—
und arasteini, under an eagle rock(25)—
Hjörvarð ok Hávarð, Hjǫrvarðr and Hávarðr,
Hundings sonu; Hunding's sons;
farit hafði hann allri he had killed all the
ætt geirmímis. race of the spear-Mímir(26).
Þá brá ljóma Then light burst forth
af Logafjöllum, from Logafjǫll,
en af þeim ljómum and from that light
leiftrir kómu, came lightnings,
-- -- -- — — —
hávar(27) und hjalmum high under helms
á Himinvanga, in Himinvangr,(28)
brynjur váru þeira their mail-shirts were
blóði stokknar, splashed with blood,
en af geirum and from their spears
geislar stóðu. stretched beams of light.
Frá árliga From early on,
ór úlfíði from wolf-forest,(29)
döglingr at því the Dag-descendant thus [asked]
dísir suðrænar, the southern dísir,
ef þær vildi heim whether they wanted to go home
með hildingum with the war-leader
þá nótt fara; that night;
þrymr var alma. there was a din of bowstrings.
En af hesti But from her horse
Högna dóttir, Hǫgni's daughter,
- líddi randa rym, - - the clashing of shields was waning -
ræsi sagði: said to the chieftain:
"Hygg ek, at vér eigim "I think we have
aðrar sýslur other tasks
en með baugbrota than with a ring-breaker
bjór at drekka. to drink beer."
Hefir minn faðir My father has
meyju sinni pledged his girl
grimmum heitit to the grim
Granmars syni, son of Granmar,(30)
en ek hef, Helgi, but I, Helgi, have
Höðbrodd kveðinn called Hǫðbroddr
konung óneisan the king blameless
sem kattar son. as a cat's son.
Þó(31) kemr fylkir Yet the chieftain [will] come
fára nátta, in a few nights,
nema þú hánum vísir unless you show a
valstefnu til war-meeting to him
eða mey nemir or take the maid
frá mildingi." from the prince."
Helgi kvað: Helgi said:
"Uggi eigi þú "Do not fear
Ísungs bana; Ísungr's slayer;
fyrr mun dolga dynr, first there will [be] a din of swords,
nema ek dauðr séak." unless I be dead."(32)
Sendi áru The supreme ruler(33) sent
allvaldr þaðan messengers from there
of land ok um lög by land and by sea
leiðar at biðja, to call a levy,
Ógnar ljóma light of Ógn(34)
brögnum bjóða he pledged to warriors
ok burum þeira. and their sons.
"Biðið skjótliga "Bid [them] swiftly
til skipa ganga go to ships
ok ór Brandeyju and be ready
búna verða." from Brandey."(35)
Þaðan beið þengill, then the prince waited
unz þingat kómu until there came there
halir hundmargir hundreds of fighters
ór Heðinseyju. from Heðinsey.
Ok þar af ströndum And there from the beaches(36)
ór Stafnsnesi off Stafnsnes
beit her út skriðu out slipped the host, fair(37)
ok búin gulli; and covered in gold;
spurði Helgi Helgi asked
Hjörleif at því: Hjǫrleifr about this:
"hefir þú kannaða "Have you reviewed
koni óneisa?" the upright gentlemen?"
En ungr konungr And the young king
öðrum sagði, said to the other,
seint kvað at telja slow [he] said [it would be] to account
af Trönueyri from Trönueyri
langhöfðuð skip the long-headed ships
und líðöndum, with voyagers aboard
þau er í Örvasund that into Ǫrvasund
útan fóru. were heading out.
"Tolf hundruð "Twelve hundred(38)
tryggra manna; trusty men;
þó er í Hátúnum yet there is in Hátún
halfu fleira a greater by half
víglið konungs; war-host of the king;
ván erum rómu." we're liable [to have] a battle."
Svá brá stýrir So the leader took
stafntjöldum af, off the stem-tents,(39)
at mildinga so that the prince's
mengi vakði, host awoke,
ok döglingar and the king's men
dagsbrún séa saw the brows of day(40)
ok siklingar and the chieftain's men
sneru upp við tré tied up to the mast
vefnistingum the woven sails
á Varinsfirði. in Varinsfjord.
Varð ára ymr There began a humming of oars
ok járna glymr, and clashing of irons,
brast rönd við rönd, shield struck against shield,
reru víkingar; the vikings rowed;
eisandi gekk dashing through the waves went
und öðlingum laden with the chief's men
lofðungs floti the prince's fleet,
löndum fjarri. out from land.
Svá var at heyra, So it could be heard
er saman kómu as there came together
kolgu systir Kolga's sister(41)
ok kilir langir, and the long keels,
sem björg eða brim as if mountains and surf(42)
brotna myndi. were breaking together.
Draga bað Helgi Helgi ordered drawn
há segl ofar, the sails higher up,
varð-at hrönnum the waves'
höfn þingloga, haven did not break its agreement,(43)
þá er ógurlig although the awful
Ægis dóttir daughter of Ægir
stagstjórnmörum the stay-steer-steeds(44)
steypa vildi. wished to drown.
En þeim sjalfum But those themselves
Sigrún ofan Sigrún from above,
folkdjörf of barg courageous, protected,
ok fari þeira; and their vessel;
snerisk ramliga strongly escaped
Rán ór hendi from Rán's hands
gjalfrdýr konungs the king's surf-beast(45)
at Gnipalundi. off Gnipalundr.
Sat þar um aftan There it rode at evening
í Unavágum, in Unavágar,
flaust fagrbúin the gaily bedecked ships
fljóta knáttu; did float;
en þeir sjalfir but those themselves
frá Svarinshaugi from Svarinshaugr
með hermðar hug in angry mood
her könnuðu. searched out the armed force.
Frá góðborinn From god-born
Guðmundr at því: Guðmundr thus:
"Hverr er landreki, "Who is the land-protector
sá er liði stýrir who guides the force
ok hann feiknalið and the huge host(46)
færir at landi?" leads to land?"
Sinfjötli kvað Sinfjǫtli said
- slöng upp við rá - he raised on the sail-yard
rauðum skildi, a red shield,(47)
rönd var ór gulli; the rim was of gold;
þar var sundvörðr, there was a sea-warder
sá er svara kunni who could answer
ok við öðlinga and with princes
orðum skipta --: bandy words:--
"Segðu þat í aftan, "Say this in the evening,
er svínum gefr when you give the swine [fodder]
ok tíkr yðrar and fetch your bitches
teygir at solli, to the swill,
at sé Ylfingar that Ylfingar
austan komnir have come from the east
gunnar gjarnir keen men
fyr Gnipalundi. from Gnipalundr.
Þar mun Höðbroddr There Hǫðbroddr will
Helga finna find Helgi,
flugtrauðan gram the flight-loth warrior,
í flota miðjum, amidst the fleet,
sá er oft hefir who has often
örnu sadda, sated eagles,
meðan þú á kvernum while you at querns
kystir þýjar." kissed thrall-women."
Guðmundr kvað:(48) Guðmundr said:
"Fátt mantu, fylkir, "Little you know, chieftain,
fornra spjalla, of ancient tales,
er þú öðlingum when you princes
ósönnu bregðr; untruthfully challenge;
þú hefir etnar you have eaten
ulfa krásir wolves' dainties
ok bræðr þínum and been the death
at bana orðit, of your brothers,
oft sár sogin often sucked wounds
með svölum munni, with cold mouth,
hefr í hreysi [you] have in rock-dens
hvarleiðr skriðit." slunk, ever-loathed."
Sinfjötli kvað: Sinfjǫtli said:
"Þú vart völva "You were a vǫlva
í Varinseyju, on Varinsey,
skollvís kona, a crafty woman,
bartu skrök saman; you put together lies;
kvaztu engi mann you said you did not want
eiga vilja, to have a man,
segg brynjaðan, a fighter in mail,
nema Sinfjötla. except for Sinfjǫtli.
Þú vart, in skæða, You were, damaging woman,
skass, valkyrja, ogress, a valkyrie,
ötul, ámátlig fierce, loathsome
at Alföður; to Allfather;
mundu einherjar the einherjar would have
allir berjask, all fought each other,
svevís kona, fickle(49) woman,
of sakar þínar. on account of you.
Níu áttu vit Nine we two had
á nesi Ságu on Sága's headland
ulfa alna, of wolves in all;
ek var einn faðir þeira." I alone was their father."
Guðmundr kvað: Guðmundr said:
"Faðir var-at-tu "Father you were not
fenrisulfa of Fenris wolves,
öllum ellri, older than all,
svá at ek muna, the way I recall it,
síz þik geldu since you were gelded
fyr Gnipalundi outside Gnipalundr
þursa meyjar by thurs(50) maidens
á Þórsnesi. on Thorsness.
Stjúpr vartu Siggeirs, You were Siggeir's stepson,
látt und stöðum heima, you lay under the places of homes,(51)
vargljóðum vanr used to wolf-songs
á viðum úti; out in the withies;
kómu þér ógögn all kinds of destructiveness came
öll at hendi, to your hands,
þá er bræðr þínum when you your brother's
brjóst raufaðir; breast tore open;
gerðir þik frægjan you made yourself famous
af firinverkum." for foul deeds."
Sinfjötli kvað: Sinfjǫtli said:
"Þú vart brúðr Grana "You were Grani's(52) mate
á Brávelli, at Brávǫllr,
gullbitluð vart gold-bridled you were
gör til rásar; readied for the race;
hafða ek þér móðri I have you weary
marg skeið riðit many a course ridden,
svangri und söðli, skinny under the saddle,
simul, forbergis." ever, downhill.(53) "
Guðmundr kvað: Guðmundr said:
"Sveinn þóttir þú "You seemed an uncouth
siðlauss vera, youth to be,
þá er þú Gullnis when you Gullnir's
geitr molkaðir, goats were milking,
en í annat sinn and another time,
Imðar dóttir [to be] Imði's daughter,
tötrughypja. [in] tattered frock.
Vill þú tölu lengri?" Do you want a longer tale?"
Sinfjötli kvað: Sinfjǫtli said:
"Fyrr vilda ek "Sooner would I
at Frekasteini at Frekastein
hrafna seðja feed ravens
á hræum þínum with your dead body
en tíkr yðrar than fetch your bitches
teygja at solli to the swill
eða gefa göltum; or give [fodder] to the hogs;(54)
deili gröm við þik." let the fiends deal with you."
Helgi kvað: Helgi said:
"Væri ykkr, Sinfjötli, "Sinfjǫtli, it would be for you both
Sæmra miklu much more seemly
gunni at heyja to wage war
ok glaða örnu, and gladden eagles,
en sé ónýtum than useless
orðum at bregðask, words to wield against each other,
þótt hringbrotar although ring-breakers
heiftir deili. do pursue feuds.
Þykkja-t mér góðir I do not think [they are] good,
Granmars synir, Granmarr's sons,
þó dugir siklingum yet it behooves kings
satt at mæla; to speak the truth;
þeir hafa markat they showed
á Móinsheimum, at Móinsheimar
at hug hafa that they have the courage
hjörum at bregða." to wield swords."
Þeir af ríki Mightily off they(55)
renna létu made run
Svipuð ok Sveggjuð Svipuð and Sveggjuð(56)
Sólheima til to Sólheimar
dala döggótta, [through] dewy dales,
dökkvar hlíðir; dark ravines;
skalf Mistar marr the steed of Mist(57) shook
hvar er megir fóru. where the men rode.
Mættu þeir tyggja They met the leader
í túnhliði, in the courtyard gateway,
sögðu stríðliga said opposing
stilli kómu; kings had come;
úti stóð Höðbroddr outside stood Hǫðbroddr,
hjalmi faldinn, clad in his helm,
hugði hann jóreið he considered the riding
ættar sinnar: of his kinsmen:
"Hví er hermðar litr "Why is there flushed colouring
á Hniflungum?" on Hniflungs?"(58)
Guðmundr kvað: Guðmundr said:
"Snúask hér at sandi "Here to our sands are turning
snævgir kjólar, lithe keels,
ok ráar langar, and long yards,
skildir margir, many shields,
skafnar árar, scraped oars,
göfugt lið gylfa, a noble host of Gylfi(60),
glaðir Ylfingar. the glad(61) Ylfings.
Ganga fimmtán There are going fifteen
folk upp á land, troops up onto shore,
þó er í Sogn út yet out in Sogn there are
sjau þúsundir; seven thousand;
liggja hér í grindum there lie here in the docks(62)
fyr Gnipalundi off Gnipalundr
brimdýr blásvört surf-deer(63) blue-black
ok búin gulli; and decorated with gold,
þar er miklu mest there are by far most
mengi þeira; of their forces;
mun-a nú Helgi Helgi will not now
hjörþing dvala." delay the sword-thing(64)."
Höðbroddr kvað: Hǫðbroddr said:
"Renni rökn bitluð "Bridle running steeds
til Reginþinga, for the Regin-thing,
en Sporvitnir and Sporvitnir
at Sparinsheiði, for Sparinsheiðr,
Mélnir ok Mýlnir Mélnir and Mýlnir
til Myrkviðar; to Myrkviðr;
látið engi mann let no one
eftir sitja, stay behind
þeira er benlogum who a wound-wand(65)
bregða kunni. can wield.
Bjóðið ér Högna Let send to Hǫgni
ok Hrings sonum, and Hringr's sons,
Atla ok Yngva, Atli and Yngvi,
Alf inum gamla, Alfr the old,
þeir ró gjarnir they are eager
gunni at heyja; to wage war;
látum Völsunga let the Vǫlsungs
viðrnám fáa." have resistance."
Svipr einn var þat, A swoop it was,
er saman kómu when there came together
fölvir oddar the pale swordpoints
at Frekasteini; at Frekasteinn;
ey var Helgi ever was Helgi
Hundings bani Hunding's bane
fyrstr í fólki, first in the troop,
þar er firar börðusk, when men fought,
æstr á ímu, fiercest in battle,
alltrauðr flugar; very loth to flee;
sá hafði hilmir that ruler had
hart móðakarn. a stout mood-acorn.(66)
Kómu þar ór himni Then there came from the sky
hjalmvítr ofan, down, helmet-wights(67)
- óx geira gnýr, - —the clashing of spears grew—
þær er grami hlífðu; they who shielded the warrior;
þá kvað þat Sigrún, then Sigrún said this,
sárvitr fluga wound-wise fly(68)
- át hálu skær —the ogress's steed(69) ate
af hugins barri -: of Huginn's barley(70)—
"Heill skaltu, vísi, Hail to you, king,
virða njóta, glory in your men,
áttstafr Yngva, stave of the line of Yngvi,
ok una lífi, and enjoy your life,
er þú fellt hefir for you have felled
inn flugartrauða the flight-loth
jöfur, þann er olli king, who caused
ægis dauða. dread of death.(71)
Ok þér, buðlungr(72), And to you, king,
samir bæði vel both together well [belong],
rauðir baugar red rings(73)
ok in ríkja mær; and the noble maiden;
heill skaltu, buðlungr, hail to you, king,
bæði njóta glory in both
Högna dóttur Hǫgni's daughter
ok Hringstaða, and Hringstaðir(74),
sigrs ok landa. victory and lands.
Þá er sókn lokit. Then the action(75) is ended."
1. ok þeira Höðbrodds is an emendation by the editor, Guðni Jónsson. The poem is found only in the Codex Regius. The superscript there ends þa h..., with the rest being illegible.
2. Borghildr was Sigmund's first wife; Brálundr was her home.
3. An ǫðlingr was properly an owner of odal land; it's one of many words used in poetry for a prince or chief. In the remainder of the verse, fylki(r) technically means the ruler of a fylki or shire, while buðlungr is a more or less poetic word for "king".
4. This line makes little sense whether borgir is taken as "(fortified) towns", as it usually means, or "hills", and even if the verb is taken as meaning "shook", far from its usual meanings; the word can also mean "away". Frequently amended to burar Borghildar, "Borghild's son".
5. I have corrected an apparent typo.
6. kenning: the sky
7. i.e., would own
8. reversing the lines for clarity in English.
9. Something about the threat appears to have been lost here.
10. i.e., he will provide lots of fodder for scavengers by fighting battles.
11. king: descendant of King Dagr.
12. kenning: battle
14. kenning: sword
15. Sigmund's son by his sister, Signý, and hence Helgi's stepbrother.
16. i.e, man
17. Blóðrækinn is a bit of a puzzle because it must describe hilmir, i.e., Helgi, who has yet to shed blood. The verb reka has many meanings, "wreak" and "drive" being basic; one wants to apply the adjective to hodd and have it mean that the wealth is figuratively blood-"inlaid" or comes from blood-letting.
18. Vísi, like buðlungr a more or less poetic word for "king", referred in Verse 8 to someone else, but from this verse on, refers to Helgi. Jǫfurr, which first occurs in the following verse, is also "king".
19. i.e., make him pay
20. Accepting the general emendation to bœtr; bótir means "boots".
21. i.e, could or should
22. Grár, "grey" sometimes has a metaphorical meaning of "malicious, hurtful".
23. Both the storm of spears and the anger of Óðinn are kennings for war, battle.
25. or Arasteinn, a placename
26. kenning: warrior. (Or a proper name, Geirmímir.)
27. (feminine plural): Sophus Bugge's suggested correction for þa var in the manuscript. He thought at least two lines were missing.
28. Field of Heaven; may not be a placename.
29. possibly a kenning for battle
30. some re-ordering for sense in English.
31. Bugge's emendation based on Vǫlsungasaga; the manuscript has Þa, "then".
32. Something is missing here. The manuscript does not have the label that this verse is spoken by Helgi.
33. Just another "ruler" word referring to Helgi, as is þengill in the next verse.
34. Kenning for gold; Ógn is one of the river names listed in the Prose Edda, hence "light of a river", referring to the Rhinegold. However, ógn means "terror", so it has been suggested it should be lowercase here, and in "Fáfnismál", and be taken as a kenning for swords.
35. Order of the two lines reversed for clarity in English.
36. Emended from stǫndum, which has alternatively been amended to stǫndu, "they stood".
37. Beit is a puzzle. As a noun, one of its meanings is "ship", so possibly we should read beither, "ship-host". However, as a masculine word herr should have a second -r and búinn a second -n.
38. A first pair of lines are likely missing here.
39. Awnings in the bow or stern, sheltering the crew as they slept; presumably he ordered them removed rather than doing it personally.
40. Dawn; this pair of half-lines resembles the last pair in "Helgakviða Hundingsbana II", Verse 43.
41. A wave; Kolga (more often Kólga) is one of the nine daughters of Ægir. Why the editor did not capitalise the name is unclear.
42. Eða is usually "or" but this is one of the instances where it has to mean "and". Mountains: i.e., sea cliffs. Vǫlsungasaga makes it clear that there was a storm.
43. A þinglogi is a "meeting-liar", someone who breaks a court date, or by extension another obligation to appear; höfn hrönnum is here taken together, "they did not fail to reach the harbour". But the words have been variously amended and interpreted: the crew (höfn) did not fail to meet their appointment with the waves; the seas (hrönn) did not let up on the keels (húfum).
44. A complex kenning for ships; the first part, stag, is a stay in the sense of a rope on a sailing ship.
45. kenning for ship
46. The 110 lines beginning with this one are parallelled in "Helgakviða Hundingsbana II".
47. A declaration of war; a white shield was a sign of peace.
48. Guðmundr is one of Hǫðbroddr's sons. From now to the end of the flyting, the stage directions are supplied by the editor; however, who speaks which insult can be partially reconstructed from Vǫlsungasaga. There also appears to be something missing somewhere in this verse that would have made it two verses.
49. Following an emendation to sveipvís.
50. A kind of giant; the distinction between a thurs and a jǫtunn is not very clear, although modern Icelanders characterise the thurs as stupid, the jötunn as strong and the risi as big: "Hár sem risi, sterkr sem jötunn, heimskr sem þurs".
51. Bugge suggested amending this to hreina, to get "reindeer's lairs".
52. Sigurð's horse
53. Unclear line
54. Compare verse 34. Guðbrandur Vigfússon and F. York Powell suggested this verse should follow that one as a response.
55. Hǫðbrodd's sons on shore
56. names of horses
57. Kenning: either marr is the poetic word for a horse (and Mist is the valkyrie name, correctly capitalized by the editor) and the meaning is "the earth", or marr is the homonym meaning "sea" and "sea of mist" means "the air". The former seems more likely. These four half-lines may be an interpolation.
58. Here used to mean "warriors."
59. Deer of the rings around a mast to which sail-yards are secured: kenning for ships.
60. Although not capitalised by the editor, Gylfi appears here to be the name, used metaphorically as Hniflungar was in the previous stanza.
61. Presumably this means "cheerful about war" or "hearty".
62. probably meaning "at anchor"
63. kenning for ships
64. kenning for battle
65. kenning for sword
67. taking vítr as a variant on vættr; the other interpretation would be as hvít, "white". Both ways, the plural seems to have gone missing. Also see sárvitr, below.
68. Kenning for valkyrie. Vitr here has also been taken as vættr, and fluga as an adjective: "winged wound-wight." Magicians could bewitch flies and send them to harm enemies.
69. kenning for wolf; giantesses are often said to ride them.
70. Taking hugins to refer to Huginn, one of Óðin's ravens: kenning for the bodies of those killed, raven's food.
71. or Ægir's death; Guðbrandur Vigfússon suggested this was an error for Ísungr's.
72. Bugge suggested that siklingr, yet another word for "king", may have been the original word here, for alliteration and to avoid repeating the same word below.
73. i.e., gold
74. Already mentioned in Verse 8; some have suggested this verse is an interpolation.
75. Sókn may refer to either a military attack or a lawsuit.