Grmnisml

 

Note: For this poem I am including translations of names in the notes. For the verses consisting mostly or entirely of lists of names, I have marked the verse with an asterisk (*) and appended a second version with translated names at the end. My translations of many of the names draw on those of Ursula Dronke, Olive Bray, and Jean Young, to a lesser extent Gubrandur Vigfsson.

 


Fr sonum Hrauungs konungs.

Hrauungr konungr tti tv sonu. Ht annarr Agnarr, en annarr Geirrr. Agnarr var tu vetra, en Geirrr tta vetra. eir reru tveir bti me dorgar snar at smfiski. Vindr rak haf t. nttmyrkri brutu eir vi land ok gengu upp, fundu kotbnda einn. ar vru eir um vetrinn. Kerling fstrai Agnar, en karl fstrai Geirr ok kenndi honum r. At vri fekk karl eim skip.
   En er au kerling leiddu til strandar, mlti karl einmli vi Geirr.
   eir fengu byr ok kmu til stva fur sns. Geirrr var fram skipi. Hann hljp upp land, en hratt t skipinu ok mlti: "Faru n, ar er smyl hafi ik."
   Skipit rak haf t, en Geirrr gekk upp til bjar. Honum var ar vel fagnat, en fair hans andar. Var Geirrr til konungs tekinn ok var mar gtr.
   inn ok Frigg stu Hliskjlfu ok su um heima alla. inn mlti: "Sr Agnar, fstra inn, hvar hann elr brn vi ggi hellinum, en Geirrr, fstri minn, er konungr ok sitr n at landi?"    Frigg segir: "Hann er matningr s, at hann kvelr gesti sna, ef honum ykkja of margir koma."
   inn segir, at at er in mesta lygi. au veja um etta ml. Frigg sendi eskimey sna Fullu til Geirrar. Hon ba konung varast, at eigi fyrirgeri honum fjlkunnigr mar, s er ar var kominn land, ok sagi at mark , at engi hundr var sv lmr, at hann mundi hlaupa.
   En at var inn mesti hgmi, at Geirrr konungr vri eigi matgr, ok ltr hann handtaka ann mann, er eigi vildu hundar ra. S var feldi blm ok nefndist Grmnir og sagi ekki fleira fr sr, tt hann vri at spurr. Konungr lt hann pna til sagna ok setja milli elda tveggja, ok sat hann ar tta ntr.
   Geirrr konungr tti son tu vetra gamlan, ok ht Agnarr eftir brur hans. Agnarr gekk at Grmni ok gaf honum horn fullt at drekka ok sagi, at fair hans geri illa, er hann pndi enna mann saklausan. Grmnir drakk af. var eldrinn sv kominn, at feldrinn brann af Grmni. Hann kva:

 

Of the sons of King Hrauungr

King Hrauungr had two sons. One was called Agnarr and the other Geirrǫr. Agnarr was ten years old, and Geirrǫr was eight. They both went out in a boat with their tackle, to catch small fish. Then the wind swept them out to sea. In the darkness of night they were wrecked on the shore, went ashore, [and] found a cottager. They overwintered there. The woman fostered Agnar, and the man fostered Geirrǫ and gave him advice. In the spring the man got them a ship.

But when the woman took them to the beach, the man spoke to Geirrǫ alone.

They caught a fair wind and came to their father's harbour. Geirrǫr was at the fore of the ship. He jumped ashore, and pushed off the ship, saying: "Now go where the Devil will have you".
The ship swept out to sea, but Geirrǫr walked up to the settlement. He was welcomed, and his father [had] then died. Geirrǫr was then made king and became a well known man.

inn and Frigg were sitting in Hliskjlf and looking over all the worlds. inn said: "Do you see Agnar, your foster son, how he is siring children on an ogress in a cave, and Geirrǫr, my foster son, is a king and now rules a country?" Frigg said: "He is such a niing with his food that he starves his guests if he thinks too many have come to visit."

inn said that that was the hugest lie. They made a bet on it. Frigg sent her wish-maid Fulla to Geirrǫ. She bade the king beware that a sorceror who had entered that country did not undo him, and told them a sign: that no dog was so fierce that it would attack him.

But that was the hugest falsehood,(1) that King Geirrǫr was not generous with his food, and nonetheless he ordered the man to be seized whom dogs would not set upon. He was in a blue cloak and gave his name as Grmnir and did not say any more, although he was questioned. The king ordered him to be tortured until he spoke and to be put between two fires, and he stayed there for eight nights.

Then King Geirrǫr had a ten-year-old son, and he was called Agnarr after his brother. Agnarr went to Grmnir and gave him a full horn to drink and said that his father was doing wrong to torture the man without reason. Grmnir drank. And the fire had come so close that Grmnir's cloak was on fire. He said:


 

1. 1.

Heitr ertu, hripur, Hot you are, fire,

ok heldr til mikill; and far too big;

gngumk firr, funi! get away from me, flame!

loi svinar, The fur cloak is getting singed,

tt ek loft berak; though I hold it up;

brennumk feldr fyr. despite this my cloak is burning.

 

2. 2.

tta ntr sat ek For eight nights I sat

milli elda hr, here between the fires,

sv at mr manngi and no one

mat n bau offered me food

nema einn Agnarr, except Agnarr alone,

er einn skal ra, who alone shall rule,

Geirrar sonr, Geirrǫ's son,

Gotna landi. in the land of the Goths.

 

3. 3.

Heill skaltu, Agnarr, You will prosper, Agnar,

alls ik heilan bir for you are bid hail

Veratr vera; by Veratr;(2)

eins drykkjar for one drink

skalt aldrigi you will never

betri gjld geta. get a better reward.

 

4. 4.

Land er heilagt, The land is hallowed

er ek liggja s that I see lying

sum ok alfum nr; near to the sir and lfar;

en rheimi but in rheim(3)

skal rr vera Thor shall remain

unz of rjfask regin. until the regin are destroyed.

 

5. 5.

dalir heita, dalir(4) it is called

ar er Ullr hefir where Ullr has

sr of grva sali; made himself halls;

Alfheim Frey to Frey Alfheim

gfu rdaga the tvar as a tooth-gift

tvar at tannfi. gave in days of yore.

 

6. 6.

Br er s inn rii, There is a third dwelling,

er bl regin of which the blithe regin

silfri ku sali; thatched the halls with silver;

Valaskjalf heitir, Valaskjalfr(5) it is called,

er vlti sr which he created for himself,

ss rdaga. the ss, in days of yore.

 

7.

Skkvabekkr heitir inn fjri, Sǫkkvabekkr(6) is the name of the

fourth,

en ar svalar knegu and there the cold waves

unnir yfir glymja; can din overhead;

ar au inn ok Sga there the two, inn and Saga,

drekka um alla daga drink all day

gl r gullnum kerum. gladly from gold goblets.

 

8. 8.

Glasheimr heitir inn fimmti, Glasheimr(7) is the name of the fifth,

ars in gullbjarta where the gold-bright

Valhll v of rumir; wide Valhǫll(8) stands rooted;

en ar Hroftr kss and where Hroptr(9) chooses

hverjan dag every day

vpndaua vera. weapon-dead men.

 

9. 9.

Mjk er aukennt, It is very easy to recognise,

eim er til ins koma for those who come

salkynni at sa; to see the fellowship of in's hall;

skftum er rann reft, the abode is raftered with shafts,

skjldum er salr akir, the hall is roofed with shields,

brynjum um bekki strt. the benches strewn about with

byrnies.

 

10. 10.

Mjk er aukennt, It is very easy to recognise,

eir er til ins koma for those who come

salkynni at sa: to see the fellowship of in's hall:

vargr hangir a wolf hangs

fyr vestan dyrr, before the west door

ok drpir rn yfir. and an eagle bends over it.

 

11. 11.

rymheimr heitir inn stti, rymheimr(10) is the name of the sixth,

er jazi bj, where jzi lived,

s inn mttki jtunn; the formidable(11) jǫtunn;

en n Skai byggvir, and now Skai lives,

skr brr goa, shining bride of the gods,

fornar tftir fur. on her father's old home-site.

 

12. 12.

Breiablik eru in sjaundu, Breiablik are(12) the seventh,

en ar Baldr hefir and there Baldr

sr of gerva sali, made himself halls,

v landi, in that land

er ek liggja veit where I know there lie

fsta feiknstafi. the fewest tokens of ill.

 

13. 13.

Himinbjrg eru in ttu, Himinbjǫrg(13) are the eighth,

en ar Heimdall and there Heimdall

kvea valda vum; is said to rule the vs;

ar vrr goa there the watchman of the gods

drekkr vru ranni drinks in a comfortable(14) abode,

glar inn ga mj. glad, the good mead.

 

14. 14.

Flkvangr er inn nundi, Flkvangr(15) is the ninth,

en ar Freyja rr and there Freyja governs

sessa kostum sal; the choice of seats in the hall;

halfan val half of the slain

hon kss hverjan dag, she chooses every day,

en halfan inn . and half inn has.

 

15. 15.

Glitnir er inn tundi, Glitnir(16) is the tenth,

hann er gulli studdr it is studded with gold

ok silfri akr it sama; and furthermore roofed with silver;

en ar Forseti and there Forseti

byggir flestan dag dwells all day(17)

ok svfir allar sakir. and calms all disputes.

 

16. 16.

Natn eru in elliftu, Natn(18) are the eleventh,

en ar Njrr hefir, and there Njǫrr has

sr of grva sali; made himself halls;

manna engill prince of people

inn meins vani the one without fault

htimbruum hrgi rr. governs the high-timbered hǫrg.

 

17. 17.

Hrsi vex With brush is grown

ok hu grasi and with high grasses

Vars land vii; Var's land, Vii;(19)

en ar mgr of lzt and there the son shows himself

af mars baki on horseback

frkn at hefna fur. bold to avenge his father.

 

18. 18.

Andhrmnir Andhrmnir

ltr Eldhrmni lets boil in Eldhrmnir

Shrmni soinn, Shrmnir,(20)

fleska bezt; best of porks;

en at fir vitu, but few know

vi hvat einherjar alask. on what the einherjar are fed.

 

19. 19.

Gera ok Freka Geri and Freki(21)

ser gunntamir he feeds, the war-accustomed,

hrigr Herjafur; glorious Herjafjǫur;(22)

en vi vn eitt but on wine alone

vpngfugr weapon-noble

inn lifir. inn ever lives.

 

20. 20.

Huginn ok Muninn Huginn and Muninn(23)

fljga hverjan dag fly every day

Jrmungrund yfir; over Jǫrmungrund; (24)

umk ek of Hugin, I dread about Huginn

at hann aftr n komi-t, lest he never return,

sjmk meir of Munin. yet I am more afraid for Muninn.

 

21. 21.

tr und, undr(25) roars,

unir jvitnis jvitnir's fish

fiskr fli ; is happy(26) in the flood;

rstraumr ykkir the river stream seems

ofmikill too great

Valglaumni at vaa. for the host of slain(27) to wade.

 

22. 22.

Valgrind heitir, Valgrind(28) it is called

er stendr velli that stands on the plain,

heilg fyr helgum dyrum; holy in front of the holy door;

forn er s grind, ancient that gate is,

en at fir vitu, but few know

hv hon er ls of lokin. how it is locked on the latch.

 

23. 23.

Fimm hundru dura Five hundred doors

ok umb fjrum tgum, plus about forty,

sv hygg ek Valhllu vera; as I think, there are in Valhǫllr;

tta hundru Einherja eight hundred einherjar

ganga senn r einum durum, march side by side from one door,

er eir fara vi vitni at vega. when they go to fight against the

wolf.(29)

 

24. 24.

Fimm hundru golfa Five hundred floors(30)

ok umb fjrum tgum, plus about forty,

sv hygg ek Bilskirrni me bugum; as I think, [are in] Bilskirnir(31) with

its curves,

ranna eira, of those abodes

er ek reft vita, that I know under roof,

mns veit ek mest magar. my son's(32) I know to be the

largest.

 

25. 25.

Heirn heitir geit, Heirn(33) the goat is called

er stendr hllu who stands on the hall(34)

ok btr af Lras limum; and gnaws on Lra's(35) limbs;

skapker fylla the basin(36) fill

hon skal ins skra mjaar; she will with the shining mead;

kn-at s veig vanask. that draught cannot run out.

 

26. 26.

Eikyrnir heitir hjrtr, Eikyrnir(37) the stag is called

er stendr hllu who stands on the hall

ok btr af Lras limum; and gnaws on Lra's limbs;

en af hans hornum and from his antlers

drpr Hvergelmi, it drips into Hvergelmir,(38)

aan eigu vtn ll vega. from where all waters take their

courses.

 

27. 27.*

S ok V, S and V,

Skin ok Eikin, Skin and Eikin,

Svl ok Gunnr, Svǫl and Gunnr,

Fjrm ok Fimbulul, Fjǫrm and Fimbulul,

Rn ok Rennandi, Rn and Rennandi,

Gipul ok Gpul, Gipul and Gǫpul,

Gmul ok Geirvimul, Gǫmul and Geirvimul,

r hverfa um hodd goa, they curve around the hoard of the

gods,

yn ok Vn, yn and Vn,

ll ok Hll, ǫll and Hǫll,

Gr ok Gunnorin. Gr and Gunnorin.

 

28. 28.*

Vna heitir ein, Vna one is called,

nnur Vegsvinn, another Vegsvinn,

rija jnuma, a third jnuma,

Nyt ok Nt, Nyt and Nǫt,

Nnn ok Hrnn, Nǫnn and Hrǫnn,

Sl ok Hr, Sl and Hr,

Sylgr ok Ylgr, Sylgr and Ylgr,

V ok Vn, V and Vn,

Vnd ok Strnd, Vǫnd and Strǫnd,

Gjll ok Leiftr, Gjǫll and Leiftr,

r falla gumnum nr, they fall close to humans,

en falla til Heljar hean. and(39) fall from here to Hel.

 

29. 29.

Krmt ok rmt Krmt and rmt

ok Kerlaugar tvr, and the two Kerlaugs,(40)

r skal rr vaa these Thor must wade

dag hvern, every day,

er hann dma ferr when he goes to sit in judgement

at aski Yggdrasils, at the ash of Yggdrasill,

v at sbr because the ss-bridge

brenn ll loga, is all burning with fire,

heilg vtn hla. the holy waters roar.(41)

 

30. 30.*

Glar ok Gyllir, Glar and Gyllir,

Glr ok Skeibrimir, Glr and Skeibrimir,

Silfrintoppr ok Sinir, Silfrintoppr and Sinir,

Gsl ok Falhfnir, Gsl and Falhfnir,

Gulltoppr ok Lttfeti, Gulltoppr and Lttfeti,

eim ra sir jm these steeds the sir ride

dag hvern, every day,

er eir dma fara when they go to sit in judgement

at aski Yggdrasils. at the ash of Yggdrasill.

 

31. 31.

rar rtr Three roots

standa ra vega stand on three ways

undan aski Yggdrasils; beneath the ash of Yggdrasill;

Hel br und einni, Hel dwells under one,

annarri hrmursar, the second, the hrmursar,

riju mennskir menn. the third, humankind.

 

32. 32.

Ratatoskr heitir korni, Ratatoskr(42) the squirrel is called

er renna skal who is to run

at aski Yggdrasils, on the ash of Yggdrasill,

arnar or the eagle's words

hann skal ofan bera he is to carry down

ok segja Nihggvi nir. and tell them to Nihǫggr(43) below.

 

33. 33.

Hirtir eru ok fjrir, There are also four stags

eirs af hfingar [who] in their aiming(44)

gaghalsir gnaga: gnaw with bent necks:

Dinn ok Dvalinn, Dinn and Dvalinn,

Duneyrr ok Durarr. Duneyrr and Durarr.(45)

 

34. 34.*

Ormar fleiri liggja More worms lie

und aski Yggdrasils, under the ash of Yggdrasill

en at of hyggi hverr svira apa: than can be imagined by any stupid

ape:

Ginn ok Minn, Ginn and Minn,

eir ro Grafvitnis synir, they are Grafvitni's sons,

Grbakr ok Grafvllur, Grbakr and Grafvǫllur,

fnir ok Svfnir, fnir and Svfnir,

hygg ek, at skyli I think they are ever

meis kvistu m. to wear away the tree's twigs.

 

35. 35.

Askr Yggdrasils The ash of Yggdrasill

drgir erfii suffers trouble

meira en menn um viti: greater than people know:

hjrtr btr ofan, a stag bites it on top,

en hliu fnar, and on the side it is rotting,

skerir Nihggr nean. Nihǫggr cuts away at it underneath.

 

36. 36.*

Hrist ok Mist Hrist and Mist

vil ek, at mr horn beri, I wish to bring me a horn,

Skeggjld ok Skgul, Skeggjǫld and Skǫgul,

Hildr ok rr, Hildr and rr,

Hlkk ok Herfjtur, Hlǫkk and Herfjǫtur,

Gll ok Geirnul, Gǫll and Geirǫnul,

Randgrr ok Rgrr Randgrr and Rgrr

ok Reginleif, and Reginleif,

r bera Einherjum l. they bring the einherjar ale.

 

37. 37.

rvakr ok Alsvir rvakr and Alsvir(46)

eir skulu upp hean they must from here

svangir sl draga; draw the sun up, thin ones;

en und eira bgum but under their withers

flu bl regin, placed the blithe regin,

sir, sarnkol. the sir, iron coolness.

 

38. 38.

Svalinn heitir, Svalinn(47) is his name,

hann stendr slu fyrir, he stands before the sun,

skjldr, sknanda goi; a shield [for] the shining goddess;

bjrg ok brim, Mountain and sea,

ek veit, at brenna skulu, I know that they must burn

ef hann fellr fr. if he falls off.

 

39. 39.

Skll heitir ulfr, Skǫll(48) is the name of a wolf,

er fylgir inu skrleita goi who follows the shining-faced

goddess

til varna viar, to the guardians' wood,

en annarr Hati, and another is Hati,

hann er Hrvitnis sonr, he is Hrvitnir's son,(49)

s skal fyr heia bri himins. who is to [go] before the bright bride

of the sky.

 

40. 40.

r Ymis holdi From Ymir's(50) flesh

var jr of skpu, the earth was created,

en r sveita sr, and from his blood the sea,

bjrg r beinum, the mountains from his bones,

bamr r hri, the trees from his hair,

en r hausi himinn. and from his skull the sky.

 

41. 41.

En r hans brm And from his brows

geru bl regin the blithe regin made

Migar manna sonum, Migar for the sons of men,

en r hans heila and from his brains

vru au in harmgu were, hard of mood,

sk ll of skpu. all the clouds created.

 

42. 42.

Ullar hylli Ullr's favour

hefr ok allra goa he has, and all the gods',

hverr er tekr fyrstr funa, he who touches first the fire,(51)

v at opnir heimar because open worlds

vera of sa sonum, become to the sons of the sir,(52)

er hefja af hvera. when cauldrons are taken off.

 

43. 43.

valda synir valdi's(53) sons

gengu rdaga in days of yore went

Skblani at skapa, to create Skblanir,(54)

skipa bezt, best of ships,

skrum Frey, for shining Frey,

ntum Njarar bur. Njǫr's generous(55) son.

 

44. 44.

Askr Yggdrasils, The ash of Yggdrasill,

hann er str via, it is the highest of trees,

en Skblanir skipa, and Skblanir of ships,

inn sa, inn of sir,

en ja Sleipnir, and of steeds Sleipnir,(56)

Bilrst bra, Bilrǫst(57) of bridges,

en Bragi skalda, and Bragi of skalds,

Hbrk hauka, Hbrk(58) of hawks,

en hunda Garmr. and of dogs Garmr.(59)

 

45. 45.

Svipum hef ek n yppt Glimpses I have now uttered

fyr sigtva sonum, for the sons of the victorious Tvar,

vi at skal vilbjrg vaka; with that the wished-for help(60)

must wake;

llum sum for all the sir

at skal inn koma that must come in

gis bekki , at gir's bench

gis drekku at. at gir's drinking.

 

46. 46.*

Htumk Grmr, I have been called Grmr,

htumk Gangleri, I have been called Gangleri,

Herjann ok Hjalmberi, Herjann and Hjalmberi,

ekkr ok rii, ekkr and rii,

undr ok Ur, undr and Ur,

Herblindi ok Hr. Herblindi and Hr.

 

47. 47.*

Sar ok Svipall Sar and Svipall

ok Sanngetall, and Sanngetall,

Herteitr ok Hnikarr, Herteitr and Hnikarr,

Bileygr, Bleygr, Bileygr, Bleygr,

Blverkr, Fjlnir, Bǫlverkr, Fjǫlnir,

Grmr ok Grmnir, Grmr and Grmnir,

Glapsvir ok Fjlsvir; Glapsvir and Fjǫlsvir;

 

48. 48.*

Shttr, Sskeggr, Shǫttr, Sskeggr,

Sigfr, Hnikur, Sigfǫr, Hnikur,

Alfr, Valfr, Alfǫr, Valfǫr,

Atrr ok Farmatr; Atrr ok Farmatr;

einu nafni a single name

htumk aldregi, I have never been called by,

sz ek me folkum fr. since I travelled among the

hosts.(61)

 

49. 49.*

Grmni mik htu Grmnir they have called me

at Geirrar, at Geirrǫ's,

en Jalk at smundar, but Jalk at smund's,

en Kjalar, and then Kjalar,

er ek kjlka dr, when I drew the sledges,

rr ingum at, rr at Things,

Viurr at vgum, Viurr in combat,

ski ok mi, ski and mi,

Jafnhr ok Biflindi, Jafnhr and Biflindi,

Gndlir ok Hrbarr me goum. Gǫndlir and Hrbarr among the

gods.

 

50. 50.

Sviurr ok Svirir Sviurr and Svirir(62)

er ek ht at Skkmmis, I have been called at

Sǫkkmmir's,(63)

ok dulak ann inn aldna jtun, and that time I fooled the old jǫtunn,

er ek Mivitnis vark when I it was, I of Mivitnir's

ins mra burar famous son

orinn einbani. became the lone slayer.

 

51. 51.

lr ertu, Geirrr, You are drunk, Geirrǫr,

hefr ofdrukkit; you have drunk too much;

miklu ertu hnugginn, you are bereft of much,

er ert mnu gengi, since you have left mine;

llum Einherjum all the einherjar

ok ins hylli. and in's favour.

 

52. 52.

Fjl ek r sagak, Many things I told you,

en ftt of mant; but you remember few;

of ik vla vinir; friends betray you;

mki liggja a sword lying,

ek s mns vinar I see, in my friend's

allan dreyra drifinn. blood all drenched.

 

53. 53.

Eggman val Carrion mown by weapon's edge

n mun Yggr hafa, Yggr will now have,

itt veit ek lf of liit; you, I know, life has left;

far ro dsir, angry are the dsir,

n knttu in sj, now you can see in,

nlgasktu mik, ef megir. approach me, if you can.

 

54. 54.*

inn ek n heiti, inn I am called now,

Yggr ek an ht, Yggr I was called before,

htumk undr fyr at, they called me undr before that,

Vakr ok Skilfingr, Vakr and Skilfingr,

Vfur ok Hroftatr, Vfur and Hroftatr

Gautr ok Jalkr me goum, Gautr and Jalkr among the gods,

fnir ok Svfnir, fnir and Svfnir,

er ek hygg, at ornir s and I think that they have come into

being

allir af einum mr. all about me alone.






Geirrr konungr sat ok hafi sver um kn sr ok brugit til mis. En er hann heyri, at inn var ar kominn, st hann upp ok vildi taka in fr eldinum. Sverit slapp r hendi honum, ok vissu hjltin nir. Konungr drap fti ok steypist fram, en sverit st ggnum hann, ok fekk hann bana. inn hvarf , en Agnarr var ar konungr lengi sian.

King Geirrǫr was seated and had his sword on his knee and halfway drawn. But when he heard that inn had come there, then he stood up and wanted to take in away from the fires. The sword slipped out of his hand, and the hilt was pointing down. The king caught his foot and fell forwards, and the sword ran him through and killed him. inn then disappeared, but Agnarr was king there for a long time afterwards.


 

Names

 

27. 27.

S ok V, Slowmoving and Wide,

Skin ok Eikin, Attacking and Raging,

Svl ok Gunnr, Quaking and War-Eager,

Fjrm ok Fimbulul, Lively and Great Babbler,

Rn ok Rennandi, Rhine and Running,

Gipul ok Gpul, Gabbler and Gaper,

Gmul ok Geirvimul, Old Woman and Spear Brandisher,

r hverfa um hodd goa, they curve around the hoard of the

gods,

yn ok Vn, Dinning and Wine,

ll ok Hll, Fir Tree and Descending,

Gr ok Gunnorin. Greed and Battler.

 

28. 28.

Vna heitir ein, Wine-river one is called,

nnur Vegsvinn, another Way Wise,

rija jnuma, a third People-Taker,

Nyt ok Nt, Usefulness and Knife,

Nnn ok Hrnn, Burly and Wave,

Sl ok Hr, Cruel and Storm,

Sylgr ok Ylgr, Gulp and She-Wolf,

V ok Vn, Wide and Waiting,

Vnd ok Strnd, Stick and Shore,

Gjll ok Leiftr, Din and Flash,

r falla gumnum nr, they fall close to humans,

en falla til Heljar hean. and fall from here to Hel.

 

30. 30.

Glar ok Gyllir, Glad and Goldy,

Glr ok Skeibrimir, Glass and Dash-Foaming,

Silfrintoppr ok Sinir, Silver-Forelock and Sinews,

Gsl ok Falhfnir, Hostage and Pale-Hoofed,

Gulltoppr ok Lttfeti Gold-Forelock and Lightfoot

 

34. 34.

Ginn ok Minn, Soil One and Heath One,

eir ro Grafvitnis synir, they are Gravewolf's sons,

Grbakr ok Grafvllur, Greyback and Gravehaunter,

fnir ok Svfnir Twister and Suffocator(64)

 

36. 36.
Hrist ok Mist Brandish and Fog

vil ek, at mr horn beri, I wish to bring me a horn,

Skeggjld ok Skgul, Axe-Age and Spear-Point,

Hildr ok rr, Battle and Strength,

Hlkk ok Herfjtur, Waste and Battle-fetter,

Gll ok Geirnul, Shriek and Spear-wielder,

Randgrr ok Rgrr Shield-Fierce and Counsel-Fierce

ok Reginleif, and Regin-leavings,

r bera Einherjum l. they bring the einherjar ale.

 

46. 46.

Htumk Grmr, I have been called Masked,

htumk Gangleri, I have been called Wanderer,

Herjann ok Hjalmberi, Warlord and Helm-Wearer,

ekkr ok rii, Welcome and Third,

undr ok Ur, Thin(65) and Blade,

Herblindi ok Hr. Army-blind(66) and High One.(67)

 

47. 47.

Sar ok Svipall Steadfast and Fickle

ok Sanngetall, and Guesses-True,

Herteitr ok Hnikarr, War-Eager and Thruster,(68)

Bileygr, Bleygr, Bad-Eye, Fire-Eye,

Blverkr, Fjlnir, Baleworker, Hider,

Grmr ok Grmnir, Masked and Masked One,

Glapsvir ok Fjlsvir; Seductively Wise and Muchly Wise;

 

48. 48.

Shttr, Sskeggr, Long-Hood, Long-Beard,

Sigfr, Hnikur, Victory Father, Skewerer,

Alfr, Valfr, Allfather, Father of Slaughter,

Atrr ok Farmatr; Charging Rider and Cargo God;

einu nafni a single name

htumk aldregi, I have never been called by,

sz ek me folkum fr. since I travelled among the hosts.

 

49. 49.

Grmni mik htu Masked One they have called me

at Geirrar, at Geirrǫ's,

en Jalk at smundar, but Gelding at smund's,

en Kjalar, and then Keeler,

er ek kjlka dr, when I drew the sledges,

rr ingum at, Thruster at Things,

Viurr at vgum, Enemy in combat,

ski ok mi, Wish and Howl,

Jafnhr ok Biflindi, Just as High and Shield-Shaker(69)

Gndlir ok Hrbarr me goum. Shaman(70) and Hoary-Beard

among the gods.

 

54. 54.

inn ek n heiti, inn I am called now,

Yggr ek an ht, Terrible I was called before,

htumk undr fyr at, they called me Thunderer before

that,

Vakr ok Skilfingr, Wakeful and Shaker,(71)

Vfur ok Hroftatr, Swayer and God of Hidden Things

Gautr ok Jalkr me goum, Maker(72) and Gelding among the

gods,

fnir ok Svfnir, Twister and Suffocator,

er ek hygg, at ornir s and I think that they have come into

being

allir af einum mr. all about me alone.

 

Notes

 

1. Literally: a cobweb

2. God of Men

3. Strength Home

4. Yewdales

5. Vali's Ledge

6. Sunken Bench

7. Gladshome

8. Usually anglicised as Valhalla; the word means "hall of the slain" but the second element, used only of royal halls, may well have originally been a word meaning "underground cave".

9. Hidden, i.e., inn; see also Hroptatr, verse 54.

10. Clash Home - rymr refers to noise and is often used metaphorically of battle.

11. mttigr is a term used of witches and jǫtnar, of uncertain meaning. It has been related to mtligr, "loathsome, piteous", but also rendered as "powerful".

12. Broadgleam. Verses 12, 13 and 16 have eru, are, rather than er, is.

13. Skymountains

14. Vrr literally "peaceful", but more often used as "comfortable".

15. Field of the Host

16. Radiant

17. Literally "most of the day".

18. Ships Enclosure

19. Withy-wood, taking Vii as a proper name, as is usual; alternatively it would be "with woodland".

20. Sootyface, Fire-sooty, Sea-sooty

21. Greedy, Ravening

22. Father of Armies

23. Usually rendered as Thought and Memory

24. i.e., the earth.

25. Thunderer? undr also occurs as a name of inn in verse 46 in Codex Regius (usually amended to yr following manuscript A) and in verse 54.

26. Unir can also, less often, simply mean "dwells".

27. Taking valglaumr as not a proper name, as is usual; however, Sophus Bugge interpreted it as the name of the river running around Valhǫllr.

28. Slain-gate

29. Vitnir, a poetic word for "wolf".

30. It's also possible to take glfr here in its rarer sense of "apartment, accommodation".

31. Bilskirnir or Bilskrnir has been taken a number of different ways, primarily as a reference to lightning - Clear-Flasher, from bil as "moment" and skr, "clear" - and a reference to strength - Failure-Defier, from a posited earlier meaning of bil - giving way - and skirra - "shun".

32. i.e, Thor's

33. Daybright-rune (although Gubrandur Vigfsson took it as Heathrun, from heir rather than hei).

34. Here and in the next verse, Heriafǫrs ("of Heriafǫr" - Father of Armies, see Verse 19) appears at the end of the line in both manuscripts. Guni Jnsson omitted it as Sophus Bugge suggested doing, because it disturbs the metre and is therefore likely a later addition.

35. Shelterer? Dronke amends to Leras for Hleras, "Listener". Presumably another name for Yggdrasill.

36. Skapker: the basin or cask the horns are filled from.

37. Oakthorn

38. Boiling Cauldron

39. I have changed er in Guni Jnsson's edition to en (it would otherwise be "who fall"). En is the usual reading, and accords with manuscript A; the Codex Regius has e with a mark that according to Sophus Bugge could be read either way.

40. Dronke translates the names in these two lines "The Dike and the Delta and the Double Baths"; Gubrandur Vigfsson translated Kerlaugar , which literally means "kettle-baths", thus "bathtubs", as "Charlocks", identifying them with British river-names such as "Cherwell"; he thought several of the river names in the poem might be those of rivers in Ireland.

41. Dronke instead derives this from a hl- meaning "lukewarm", i.e., cool.

42. Gnawtooth or Auger-tooth

43. Generally read as Nhǫggr, Malice Striker

44. There are varying reconstructions here; the Codex Regius has hfin gar a, A has hfingiar.

45. Dead One, Dallying One, Downy Bank, Door-Stubborn

46. Early-Wake, All-Strong

47. Chill One

48. Skulk

49. Hater, Renowned Wolf's son

50. Ymir's name is not usually translated. It may be Murmurer or Moaner; it has been etymologically related to Indo-European names meaning Twin.

51. Dronke has amended this to er hver tekr, read as "he who puts a cauldron (hverr) first on the fire", the opposite meaning.

52. Dronke translates these two lines "because realms are laid waste round the sir's sons".

53. In-Ruler

54. Stick-Leaf or Snowshoe-Grassblade; the first element, sk, refers to a piece of firewood or a snowshoe and is used metaphorically for a ship; the second is from bla, a leaf of the type of a blade of grass.

55. Ntr usually means simply "useful".

56. Slipper

57. Twinkling Way, same as Bifrǫst, Trembling Way.

58. Highbreek; Dronke believes this is a reference to Haukr Hbrkr, who tricked King Athelstan of England into fostering King Harald Fairhair of Norway's son Hkon.

59. Rag

60. Vilbjǫrg is a problematic hapax legomenon (unique word).

61. Folkom is plural, but is rarely used in Norse for "peoples": more naturally either "groups of warriors" or "families". See also Flkvangr, verse 14.

62. Burner and Destroyer? Dronke has Spearer and Spearsman, but svia and svira both refer to burning and singeing.

63. Sunk-Mmir, son of Midwolf; the story is lost, but Skkmmir or Sǫkkmmir also appears in Ynglinga Saga.

64. These two are also listed as names of inn in verse 54.

65. Following the tradition of taking A's reading, ur, over the Codex Regius' undr; undr also occurs in verse 54 (and in verse 21 as a river-name).

66. The usual reading is Helblindi, "Hel-Blind", i.e., blinding people with death.

67. Hr and rii here and Jafnhr in verse 49 are the trinity in the Gylfaginning. But note also that there is a possible pun with hrr, "hoary, white-haired", as in the name Hrbarr in verse 49 and "Hrbarslj".

68. Dronke interprets Hnikarr and Hnikur as Hoaxer/Hoax Player rather than (Spear) Thruster.

69. Or: Shaker of (Linden) Trees.

70. Gǫndlir includes the mysterious word gandr, which has a wide range of uses including the fetch-forms in the Historia Norvegi's account of Lapp shamanism and in Icelandic folktale mentions of witch-rides; it has some meaning to do with the trappings of magic in "Vǫlusp" verse 22; it's also combined with the also mysterious jǫrmun to make Jǫrmungandr's name.

71. Skilfingr is the name of a royal dynasty; Dronke has "Peak Lodger".

72. Gautr is related to AS Geat and to the ancestor of the Gothic kings, Gapt. It has been interpreted as Father, Creator, but Dronke has "Blood Offering".